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Vol.XV JANUARY. 1921 Number i 







The American Historical Society, Inc 



Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 
Entered at the Post Office in Somerville, X. J., as Second Class Matter, under the 



The Vision of an American Seer (Illustrated). 

By Rev. Duncan J. McMillan, D. D., New York City - 1 

White Servitude in New York and New Jersey. 

By William Stuart, Eureka, Utah - 19 

The Halifax Explosion (frontispiece illustration). 

By Arthur W. H. Eaton, M. A., D. C. L., Boston, Mass. - 38 

Heraldry (Illustrated). 

By E. C. Finley, Providence, Rhode Island - - - 54 

A Family of Heroes (Illustrated). <, 

By John P. Downs, New York City - - - - - 69 

Plumb and Allied Families (Illustrated). 

By F. R. Peterson, Providence, Rhode Island - - 75 

Allerton Familv (Illustrated). 

By the Editor - - - - - 91 

Editorial — Of Peculiar Interest — Literary Notes - - . - 100 

Ancestral Heads of New England Families (Illustrated). 

By Frank R. Holmes, New York City - - Appendix 


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•law., j 






JANUARY, 1921 


The Vision of an American Seer 

By the Rev. Duncan J. McMillan, D. D., New York City 

N A NATION such as ours, whose government springs 
from the people, and is administered by representatives 
chosen and instructed by the people, a general intelli- 
gence and capacity for right thinking are essential. 
With the first conception of popular government, therefore, the ne- 
cessity for educational institutions for the instruction of the people 
was recognized. A college for the instruction and training of teach- 
ers for the schools and leaders of the people became a necessity. 
Thus Harvard College was established six years before the first com- 
mon school. 

The college has ever been the parent of the common school on the 
one hand, and, on the other, of the university, with its technical and 
professional schools. The university exists chiefly for the technical, 
professional and special courses, which require the previous instruc- 
tion and training of the college. Its mission is to impart knowledge, 
without regard to mental discipline and habits. 

The smaller college not only prepares for technical and profes- 
sional schools, but it exerts a distinctive influence upon the people. 
It develops the powers of thinking independently and accurately. 
Our forefathers so thought when they established colleges every- 
where. The results were seen in the quality of men they produced 
— men with the power to discern good reasoning from bad, who came 
through a process of preparation, not of mere information. Thus 
the college, with its training and its intellectual and moral enlighten- 
ment, lies very near to the heart of American social life. 

The smaller college is commended by its processes. It provides a 
close and manly intercourse and helpful sympathy between faculty 


and students which are entirely wanting in the university, where 
the professors seldom know the students individually and have noth- 
ing in common with them or with their mental habits, where the stu- 
dent is exposed to a bewilderment of knowledge with no personal in- 
struction of help in turning it to good account. 

A special value of smaller colleges is the ease with which they may 
be multiplied for the more equal distribution of educational advan- 
tages and facilities in a great expanding nation. An important mis- 
sion of the college is to find the boy, and then to help him to find him- 
self. Its function, therefore, is not only to diffuse influence and bene- 
fits widely, but also to prepare for the whole of life rather than for a 
particular part of life, or craft, or occupation. It lays a broad foun- 
dation for whatever career a man is to follow. 

The smaller colleges, located as they generally are in small com- 
munities remote from great cities, provide for instruction, board, 
and all needful things, at little expense, expose the student to few 
temptations to extravagance, and attract youth of modest means and 
earnest purpose. Class distinctions are less sharply drawn, and the 
democracy of student life without the overshadowing presence of the 
professional schools is of special advantage. The instruction in 
these colleges is not only personal, but usually given by young men 
of modern training, who, having their reputation yet to make, are 
doing their best work. Games and athletic contests, while ample for 
all practicable purposes, do not make extravagant demands upon 
either the time or the purposes of the student. 

James A. Garfield said: "A log with Mark Hopkins on one end 
and a boy on the other, was a college." A greater than Garfield 
proved that a log with a resolute boy with a maul and wedge at one 
end and nobody at the other, was a good substitute for a college. 
Abraham Lincoln received in his youth his only schooling from his 
only teacher, William G. Greene, then pursued his own methods, with 
men for his library and nature for his laboratory. 

It is quite significant that of the twenty-eight Presidents of the 
United States, the great universities have provided but six. Har- 
vard gave three, two of whom, however, graduated when Harvard 
was a small college. Yale gave but one, — and Princeton two, who 
pursued their entire course while Princeton was yet a small college. 
Nine of our Presidents were without college degrees, and the re- 
maining fourteen were from small colleges. 


We may well view with alarm the power of the university, its 
steady encroachment upon the smaller college with the apparent pur- 
pose of suppressing it. It would be difficult upon any other theory 
to explain the adjustment of the courses of study in many of the uni- 
versities. Certain it is that the shortening of the college course to 
three years, and in some cases its further reduction to two years, 
which followed the demand of the same universities for the lengthen- 
ing of the course in the preparatory schools, has, designedly or un- 
designedly, the practical effect of forcing the college out of exist- 
ence. That it is designedly so appears from two considerations: 

1. The university offers students the privilege of entering upon 
professional or technical studies before completing even the pro- 
posed shortened college course, with the further privilege of sub- 
stituting technical work for certain college studies, thus blending 
later college and early university courses. Then further shortening 
the time between the college freshmen year and the completion of 
the technical or professional course. This operates to minimize 
college work, and to deprive the student of the culture and the 
broad base for his profession for which a complete college course 
has always been supposed to provide. 

2. It is pointedly significant that these privileges are held out to 
students following both college and professional courses in the same 
university, while students entering the university from other col- 
leges are required to present certificates of having satisfactorily 
completed the full four years college course as a condition of enter- 
ing upon professional and technical studies. 

While Columbia, Harvard and Johns Hopkins are holding out 
such inducements, Cornell goes further and requires but two years 
of college work for those who take both courses in that institution. 
Whatever may be said in favor of the system, the tendency must be 
unwholesome for college work and hurtful to colleges not connected 
with universities. It cannot be that the smaller college has had its 
day, for without it our country w r ould suffer irreparably. The col- 
lege is the only exponent of a liberal culture as distinguished from 
a specialized training. It w T ould be better to divorce the university 
and the college, rather than that the college should be thus domi- 
nated by the university. The popular maxim: " Teach a boy that 
which he wall practice when he becomes a man," is the most plausible 
plea the university has to offer, except as it is confined in its applica- 
tion to the technical and professional schools. 




The business of the college is not so much to impart special knowl- 
edge as to devclope and train the powers of the boy. When a boy en- 
ters a gymnasium he docs not confine his training to what he will 
actually "practice when he becomes a man." He is not expected to 
go through life with his heels in the air, or swinging dumbbells and 
Indian clubs; but he is expected to be trained in those exercises 
which will impart grace of action, develope powers of endurance, 
promote health, strengthen in due and proper proportion the mus- 
cles of the body. The college is the intellectual gymnasium where 
powers of mind and heart are developed and poised to meet the re- 
quirements of oncoming professional, business and social life. It is 
indispensable to the well balanced man that all his faculties be like 
a retinue of trained servants, each in form ready to do his bidding. 
It is the business of the college thus to provide the man with that 
which, in all his course, he cannot elsewhere acquire. 

It is folly to charge, as one of the most brilliant but erratic oppo- 
nents of the college once charged, that "it is the business of the col- 
lege to polish pebbles and dim diamonds." It is well that he credits 
the college with the power to "polish pebbles." That is a sufficient 
commendation, for a majority of men are what he calls "pebbles." 
They ought all to be polished. The old Scotch shipbuilder was right 
when he said to Dr. McCosh: "Make a boy intelligent and capable, 
and I will make him a shipbuilder. ' ' But the brilliant opponent of 
colleges was wrong in his implication that diamonds could be 
dimmed by the processes by which pebbles are polished. 

In the Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Education, 1917, No. 22, 
there is a statement which is of interest in this connection : 

Distinguished Men of America and Their Education : 

With no schooling— Of 5,000,000, onlv 31 attained distinction. 

With elementary schooling— Of 33,000,000, 808 attained distinc- 

With high school education— Of 2,000,000, 1245 attained distinc- 

With college education— Of 1,000,000, 5768 attained distinction. 
The child with no schooling has one chance in 150,000 of performing 
distinguished service : elementary education multiplies his chances 
four times, high school education 87 times, and college education 
800 times. 

It is sometimes said that college education is not practical, — that 
the college produces learned theorists, while inventors and practical 



men who make the world move, are not college bred. Even if it be 
granted that this is often true, yet it must be remembered that a 
theorist is of great value to the world. He almost invariably throws 
out the great ideas in abstract which are seized by the practical man 
who without them would never have discerned them and worked 
them into useful form. Though it be true that the idea never would 
have occurred to the practical man, it is equally true that the idea 
never would have been turned to good account by the theorist. The 
real author of the invention seldom derives good from it. Still, if he 
can do no good with it, justice could hardly give him the reward for 
it. But is he not at least an equal factor in the product? 

But it cannot be maintained that the colleges are prolific in mere 
theorists. Indeed, they abound with apparatus, with libraries, and 
with appliances for practical experiment which, for manifest rea- 
sons, cannot be obtained elsewhere by the youth. There exists no 
reason why the training should not be made practical, and every 
student be taught how to apply his knowledge to the great interests 
with which he has a living concern. AVithout the appliances which 
colleges afford for practical experiment, mere theorists are far more 
apt to abound. 

The Seer. — A nation's institutions find their best interpretation in 
the characteristics of her representative citizens ; her hope is in the 
statesmen she produces, her security is in their intelligence, her 
strength is in their numbers and loyalty; and her glory is in the 
greatest number of peaceful and happy homes. When these essen- 
tials are exemplified in the attributes of her people, the world may 
read in them the secret of her permanence and power. In no coun- 
try are there truths more marked and manifest than in a Eepublic 
such as our own. Each citizen is charged with his measure of re- 
sponsibility for the affairs of the nation. The typical American is 
the impersonation of strength, of loyalty, and of an unfettered mind. 
Our nation has been prolific in the production of such men. They 
have been distributed in generous measure throughout the genera- 
tions which span our history. 

Prominent among those who have left ineffaceable impress upon 
our national life and institutions must ever stand that hardy fron- 
tiersman, that gallant soldier of the Cross and of his country, that 
friend of progress and humanity, that eminent patron of education, 



Gideon Blackburn, the founder of the institution which bears his 
name. With the wisdom of a statesman and the vision of a seer, he 
lived and wrought for the generations which were to follow. He 
was born of Scotch-Irish parents, in Augusta county, Virginia, Au- 
gust 27th, 1772, — just before our nation came to its birth. His life 
reached beyond the first third of the nineteenth century, thus linking 
our nation's infancy with its early maturity. His childhood was 
spent during that stormy period when our country was in the throes 
of the Revolutionary War. In a God-fearing, liberty-loving home, 
he breathed the spirit of independence and hope and rugged determ- 
ination — the elemental principles which were inwrought into every 
fibre of his character. His father, Robert Blackburn, and his moth- 
er (whose maiden name was Ritchie), were cumbered with very lit- 
tle of this world's goods. In the school of poverty and adversity, 
therefore, Gideon early learned the resolute lesson of self-help, — 
that school which, however philosophers may explain it, has pro- 
duced about all the really great men in our national history. 

Gideon Blackburn lived until his twelfth year with his grandfath- 
er, General Blackburn, after whose death the boy was practically 
adopted by his maternal uncle, Gideon Ritchie, a poor but pious 
bachelor. At the age of fifteen, he became a professing Christian. 
After the Revolutionary War, a mighty tide of emigration poured 
over the Allegheny Mountains into the great eldorado of the West, 
and with it went the parents and uncle with young Gideon, and made 
a home in Washington county, North Carolina, which afterwards 
became a part of Tennessee. The first settlers there had preceded 
them but ten years. Here the boy had the good fortune to come un- 
der the instruction of Dr. Samuel Doak, who had just established 
Martin Academy, the first institution for secondary education west 
of the mountains, and which soon became Washington College, under 
charter granted by Congress and signed by President Washington. 
Here Gideon Blackburn took his literary course and laid the foun- 
dation for his broader learning. The uncle, with the boy, moved sev- 
enty miles further westward into Jefferson county. In this new 
home Gideon extended his studies under the instruction of his fath- 
er's brother, John Blackburn. To this time, his literary resources 
had been chiefly confined to the scanty library which Dr. Samuel 
Doak had brought over the mountains in his saddlebags. Under the 
softening influences of the Godly home in which he had been reared, 



his rugged buoyant strength was softened by gentle graces. Every- 
thing else in his youthful environment was rough, primitive and 
romantic. The sins of intemperance and profanity were rampant, 
partaking of the vigor of everything on the frontier. It was easy to 
be wicked, aggressively wicked, but most difficult and heroic to be ag- 
gressively good and maintain an active Christian life. Young Black- 
burn, with a heart full of the love of God and sympathy for men, and 
accustomed to think and plan in terms of aggressive heroism, nat- 
urally turned to the Gospel ministry. Its aims were in harmony 
with his holy ambition for the salvation of men. Its difficulties and 
discouragements afforded congenial occupation for his genius and 
the habits of his life. His impulses were those of the nobler frontiers 
men who conquer the wild regions and wilder men. His desire was 
to extend Christian civilization over his country's everwidening do- 
main. With such a career in view, he studied theology with the Rev. 
Robert Henderson, at Danridge, on the Tennessee river, thirty miles 
east of Knoxville. He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
Abington in the year 1792, and ordained in 1795. 

Here we find him, in the vigor of enthusiastic young manhood, on 
the threshold of his career, without a dollar in the world, but plenti- 
fully endowed with the better capital of health and strength and the 
faith which removes mountains and uses difficulties as stepping- 
stones to great achievements. See him standing full six feet two, 
with large head crowned with glossy black hair, a receding forehead, 
and prominent brows protecting large and lustrous blue eyes, his 
nose prominent and aquiline, but, like his other features, finely chis- 
eled, his lips thin and compressed with decision, while their corners 
were upward turned to relieve any suggestion of austerity, his 
strong but not heavy-set jaw indicating firmness of purpose without 
the slightest semblance of coarseness. The one physical blemish of 
this splendid athlete was an almost imperceptible lameness caused 
by the fracture of his right limb by accident in early life. Unskill- 
ful surgical attention followed by white swelling left the limb an 
inch too short. But there was a graceful concealment of this blem- 
ish in his soldierlike form and action. 

Armed with his trusty rifle in one hand and the "Sword of the 
Spirit" in the other, hearing the call of destiny, forth he went into 
the great needy, waiting world, to follow no lead but that of oppor- 
tunity, and to build on no foundation but that which his own hands 



should lay. The scattered unorganized and unshepherded settle- 
ments, exposed to the incursions of warlike savages, needed most of 
all strong, wise, fearless leadership. The prospect which would have 
discouraged a less resolute man, proved an inspiration to Gideon 
Blackburn. With a character built upon a Scotch granite founda- 
tion, he had enough of Irish wit and eloquence to gain the ear and 
win the heart of the people, and American flexibility to make him 
adaptable to any emergency. We find him leading a company of 
soldiers to man a fort on the spot where the little city of Maryville 
now stands. Preaching to the soldiers and winning their esteem, and 
with their companionship and protection preaching to settlements, 
he established the New Providence church, and built up Eusebia 
church ten miles away, — churches which continue to this day; the 
city of Maryville and its splendid college growing up around New 
Providence church has never changed its name. He had extended 
military experience in the frequent struggles with the hostile tribes 
which frequently fretted the settlements, and many years later as 
chaplain in General Jackson's army, where he commanded the con- 
fidence, companionship and esteem of that great chieftain and Pres- 

In 3803, in the thirty-first year of his age, he was a commissioner 
to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, at Philadel- 
phia. Though without the advantages of eastern training or experi- 
ence among men of culture and prominence, we find this young 
frontiersman attracting the attention of the Assembly. Though 
among its youngest members, he at once took high rank. He served 
on the most important committee — that on bills and overtures, with 
such men as Drs. AVoodhull and Blair, Archibald Alexander, and 
Waugh. Before adjournment, he secured an act authorizing a mis- 
sion among the Cherokee Indians, and an appropriation of $250, a 
princely sum for those days, and the largest made by that xVssem- 
bly for any purpose. The Mission which he inaugurated under that 
act was, in its far-reaching influence and results, the most important 
ever attempted among Indians on this continent. It would be pleas- 
ant to follow its history in detail, but it may here only be said in brief 
that for seven years the General Assembly annually made increas- 
ing appropriations for its maintenance under Gideon Blackburn's 
personal care. At one time, at the Assembly's suggestion, he went 
to the eastern cities and raised $5,000 for that work, establishing 



Hiawassee Academy and some smaller schools. The Cherokees then 
possessed a territory embracing the southwest corner of North 
Carolina, the northwest part of Georgia, the northeast part of Ala- 
bama, and that part of Tennessee lying south of the Tennessee and 
Hiawassee rivers, 250 miles in length and 130 in width, and contain- 
ing 10,000,000 acres of land; their population was about 17,000. 
Twenty years from the establishment of that mission work among 
them, about five hundred of their young men and women could read 
and write, and were advanced correspondingly in other branches, 
were instructed in the principles of the Christian religion, and many 
were leading exemplary Christian lives. They had built public 
roads, had made good advancement in agriculture, domestic manu- 
factures, and the mechanic arts. They had made a grant of 100,000 
acres of land for a perpetual school fund to be applied under the di- 
rection of the President of the United States for the education 
of their children. They had instituted a civil government, and 
their legislative proceedings were marked by integrity, intelli- 
gence and patriotism. They had divided their land into eight dis- 
tricts or counties, had laid a tax on their people to build a court 
house in each county, and appointed four circuit judges. Their inci- 
pient jurisprudence, even at that day, secured the respect of the 
people. Had our national government adopted the policy so clearly 
marked out by Gideon Blackburn and reasonably vindicated by 
these great results, our long record of shameful transactions with 
the Indians, and many a bloody struggle with them, would have been 
averted, many a tribe now extinct before the destructive tread of our 
people might have survived to honor their ancestry and bless our 
country, and many a black chapter in our national history would 
have been unwritten. For a quarter of a century there has not been 
a "blanket Indian" nor a "wickiup" among the Cherokees. They 
have come into the Union as a most important part of the State of 
Oklahoma. Had Gideon Blackburn done nothing else but estab- 
lish and maintain that Mission, its far-reaching consequences would 
have rendered him immortal. It was enough for one human life to 
have accomplished. 

But his varied activities up to this time, instead of rounding out 
his life-work and filling the measure of his responsibility, only 
proved an apprenticeship for the larger sphere for which it so fit- 
tingly prepared him. Leaving the Mission in skillful hands which 





he had trained, in impaired health he retired, for a short rest, into 
Georgia. In 1811 we find him at Franklin, Tennessee, preaching to 
churches in a circuit of fifty miles. With mighty power he drew the 
people to his services. With a voice sweet and musical and with 
marvelous carrying quality, an eye mild with gentle radiance, bril- 
liant when animated, always sympathetic and kind, and with a pic- 
turesque way of presenting Gospel truth, lie was well-nigh irresisti- 
ble. At one of the communion services three thousand persons were 
present. He was not as learned as his successor at New Providence 
church, the Rev. Dr. Isaac Anderson, who founded a theological sem- 
inary in Maryville; nor perhaps as eloquent as the eminent James 
McCready, the great evangelist of the revival of 1800; nor as for- 
midable in debate as Dr. Frederick A. Ross ; but he easily excelled 
them all in the power of putting Gospel truth in a clear, striking, 
convincing, vivid and memorable way. His ability as a preacher was 
recognized by the General Assembly of 1807, of which he was a 
member. Rarely if ever has one so young been invited to preach be- 
fore that great body. After preaching a sermon on Missions by its 
appointment, the Assembly voted its thanks, with a request for a 
copy of the sermon for publication. He was frequently sent as a 
commissioner to the Assembly, and always held an influential place 
among its leading members. He was for a time pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Nashville, Tennessee, of which Andrew 
Jackson, his former commander, was a member until his death. 

With a phenomenal capacity for work, and unusual versatility, he 
added to his extensive ministerial charge the management of Har- 
peth Academy as its principal. Here he trained young men for the 
ministry, feeding and sheltering them in his own home, and teaching 
them theology after the completion of their academic studies. Such 
was the custom of the times before the day of theological seminaries, 
in preparing candidates for the ministry. And there were in those 
days giants in the pulpit, whose mighty eloquence shook the great 
southwest, resulting in the wonderful revivals where thousands were 
irresistibly moved in a way which no man has ever been able to ex- 
plain, and which we must refer to as an unusual manifestation of the 
power of the Spirit of God. Thus was laid the foundation of the 
Christian church in the great States lying west of the Alleghenies 
and south of the Ohio. 

In 1818 the college at Greenville conferred on Mr. Blackburn the 



academic degree of D. D. But this did not quench his missionary 
zeal. He completed twelve years of prodigious work in his Frank- 
lin circuit and Academy. In 1823 he received and accepted a call 
to the church in Louisville, Kentucky. His ministry there, though 
brilliant and fruitful, was short. The Centre College at Danville, 
sweeping the horizon for a president, chose him. He accepted its 
call, but the work was not large enough for his expansive vision. He 
retired, after two years of service, to West Tennessee, where, like 
Elijah, the great prophet of old, he sought and obtained counsel 
of the Lord. He saw the mighty march of populations westward. 
He heard the rumble and roar of the oncoming future.* 

Moving with the multitudes westward, Gideon Blackburn came to 
Illinois. For a time he was engaged as financial agent for the Illi- 
nois College at Jacksonville. But this was not far-reaching enough 
to measure the range of his vision. He saw in the coming days the 
dawn of a new expansive era. He saw in the wide prairies and 

*Our wisest sages caught no such vision. Senator Thomas H. Benton, in a mem- 
orable speech in 1825, said: "The ridge of the Rocky Mountains may be named as a 
convenient, natural and everlasting boundary. Along that ridge the western limits 
of the republic should be drawn, and the statue of the fabled god Terminus should be 
erected upon its highest peak, never to be thrown down."- 

Daniel Webster, speaking in the Senate about the western part of our country, said: 
"What do we want of this vast worthless area? this region of savages and wild 
beasts, of deserts, of shifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of cactus and prairie dogs? 
To what use could we ever hope to put these great deserts or those endless mountain 
ranges, impenetrable and covered to their base with endless snows? What can we ever 
hope to do with the western coast — a coast of 3,000 miles, rockbound, cheerless and un- 
inviting, and not a harbor on it? What use have we for such a country? Mr. Presi- 
dent, I will never vote one cent from the public treasury to place the Pacific coast one- 
inch nearer Boston than it is now." 

When Marcus Whitman, the intrepid Indian missionary of the Northwest, entered 
his plea for interposition on the part of the administration for the rescue of the Oregon 
country from British grasp, Mr. Webster, then Secretary of State, said: "Mr. Whit- 
man, you can never get a wheel across the Rocky Mountains." Mr. Whitman replied, 
"Mr. Webster, I will show you." And he did show Mr. Webster and the world some- 
thing of the possibilities of subjugating the West, when he took the first wagon 
across the Rocky Mountains to Oregon. He was the great path-maker. General 
Fremont, some years later, became known as the great "Path-finder." 

At the close of the Mexican War, Mr. Webster expressed something more than 
indifference towards the proposition to accept the great southwestern region from Mex- 
ico. He said: "Why, you will never see fifty families in that whole region." 

General W. T. Sherman, as late as 1868, when on a visit to Carlinville, was asked 
his opinion of "Seward's folly" in the purchase of Alaska for $7,500,000, remarked, in 
derision: "A suitable name for that land would be, Walrussia.' " And about that 
time, while inspecting the military posts in the southwest, being asked if he thought 
there was any prospect of a war with Mexico, replied, "We might have to whip Mexico 
to make her take back New Mexico and Arizona." 

These men were great and wise, but sages are not always seers. They acquire their 
wisdom from the past and are men of backward vision. But Gideon Blackburn and 
Whitman, and such men as the Garks and Sheldon Jackson, were seers whose "eyes 
look right on, and whose eyelids look straight before them," and who never, like Lot's 
wife, look over the shoulder. 



plains and in the rugged mountains, the great variety of natural 
resources of soil and minerals, the metals, the acids and oils; and 
too, unrecognized sources of wealth — the apt and eloquent types and 
symbols of the mingling elements of mankind that were destined to 
spread over that vast unpeopled solitude, and the populations that 
were to grow and thrill and rise in that mighty theatre on which 
the destiny of our nation must inevitably be wrought out. His great 
patriotic, loving heart was moved as the Master's was when He 
looked upon the surging masses of Jerusalem, and the Hope of the 
World is the hope of our country, — the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ and the arts and enterprises which accompany it. No period 
in any country's history so much needs it as the initial period of its 
settlement. To provide leaders especially reared and educated for 
that business, was the work with which Dr. Blackburn desired to 
crown his life. Choosing Carlinville, a little hamlet on the border 
line where the ''Grand Prairie" disputes the further encroachment 
of the Macoupin forest, he made it his final earthly home. 

The obvious fact that a new developing country has no surplus or 
unused money, was no deterrent to his enthusiasm. Accustomed to 
do his own thinking and of doing it in his own way, he devised an 
original plan. Knowing that there were unemployed fortunes in 
eastern cities looking for safe permanent investments, he offered his 
services as an agent for the purchase of western lands on a simple 
and feasible proposition. The Government lands were offered at 
$1.25 per acre. He would ask $2 for each acre which he would per- 
sonally select and purchase for the investor. Of this sum, $1.25 
would pay for the land, twenty-five cents would pay his expenses, 
and the remaining fifty cents would be held and invested in land 
for the ultimate founding of the proposed institution. Proceeding 
upon this plan, he raised funds sufficient to purchase nearly 17,000 
acres of land for the college. The plan was unique in its design and 
successful in execution. The citizens of Carlinville contributed 
funds sufficient to purchase eighty acres of land near the village for 
the site of the college building and campus. 

These lands were all entered in Dr. Blackburn's name, but in May, 
1837, he deeded them to certain trustees for the founding and main- 
tenance of his contemplated institution. However, he was not per- 
mitted to see its actual establishment. His vision was closed, his 


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Pascal observes that there are three very different orbits in which 
great men move and shine. There are those who as heroes fill the 
world with their exploits; they are greeted by the acclamations of 
the multitude. Others there are who by the brilliancy of their imagi- 
nation or the vigor of their intellect, attain to honor' of a purer and 
higher kind A third description remains, distinct from both the 
former and far more exalted than either, whose excellence consists 
in a renunciation of themselves and a compassionate love for man- 
kind In this order the Savior of the World was pleased to appear- 
and those persons obtain the highest rank in it who, by His grace 
are enabled most closely to imitate His example. In this class surely* 
is enrolled the name of Gideon Blackburn. In a green billowy field, 
white-crested with the tombs which mark the resting places of the 
dead, there stands a tomb of pulpit form and Bible crowned. Around 
its base, on each memorial day, let fairest flowers fall, for in the 
grave beneath lies the moldering form of the noblest soldier of them 
all-Gideon Blackburn, the Founder of Blackburn College 

Though Gideon Blackburn died many years before the college 
came into being, he had designated another whom he had inspired 
with his vision and who was destined to take up the torch which he 
laid down He had made know to Edward McMillan, a young min- 
ister residing m Tennessee, who in his youth had been under his 
instruction, his vision of the great Northwest, its future, and his 
plan for founding an institution for the training of young men In 
later years he informed Mr. McMillan that he had purchased lands, 
and that he desired the college to open as soon as conditions would 
warrant. A score of years after Dr. Blackburn's death, Mr McMil- 
lan carried into action a long cherished purpose of leaving the land 
of slavery in which he was born and had always lived. Resisting 
many alluring calls, he removed in 1856 with his familv, which in- 
cluded six bouncing boys, to Carlinville, and became" one of the 
trustees of the institution. The following year a charter was ob- 
tained from the legislature, exempting the property of the institu- 
te! from taxation a building was erected, and a preparatory school 
was opened with Rev. John C. Dower as principal, and Mr Jacob 
Clark as assistant. Disturbing causes preceding the Civil War com- 
pelled the temporary closing of the school. 



The Board of Trustees consisted of A. McKim Dubois, Judge. 
John M. Palmer, Philander Braley and Rev. Edward McMillan, all 
of Carlinville; Dr. Augustus T. Norton and Isaac Scarritt, of Alton; 
Anderson M. Blackburn, of Jerseyville; David A. Smith, of Jackson- 
ville; Rev. Dr. Robert W. Patterson and Judge Brown of Chicago, — 
all men of high standing in the State. 

There was an excellent building. There were lands all over the 
country, dedicated to the purpose of creating an institution of learn- 
ing, rising steadily in value. And there was abundant raw material 
for a school. Conditions called for a man of initiative, not a place 
seeker, nor one who would depend upon the office to give him promi- 
nence, but a man who could lay his own foundation and build upon it. 
Mr. McMillan saw and understood the situation and knew the man 
for the place. Some years before, while pastor of the Presbyterian 
church at Gallatin, Tennessee, he frequently preached at Castalian 
Springs, a popular health resort, surrounded by a wealthy popula- 
tion in the midst of which was a remarkable and quite famous acade- 
my under charge of Robert B. Minton, a young man of talent, learn- 
ing and eminent ability, who had been educated at Jefferson College, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio University. Mr. Minton was a very hand- 
some man, splendidly built, of fine proportions, an abundance of 
black, curly hair, bright, penetrating but kind and attractive eyes, a 
forceful but smiling and winsome face — a combination of form, fea- 
tures and facial expression such as is very rarely seen. 

From Mr. Minton 's Castalian Springs Academy came forth young 
men who became conspicuous — William B. Bate, who achieved prom- 
inence as a general in the Confederate army, and afterwards as 
Governor of Tennessee, then a longtime United States Senator, being 
the senior member of that body at the time of his death. His younger 
brother Humphrey became colonel of the First Tennessee Infantry 
in the Confederate army, and was killed at Fort Donelson; B. B. M. 
L. Barr rose to prominence in his State. Two bright boys, Gates and 
Lambert, were sent all the way from New Orleans, being attracted 
by the reputation of that young principal. 

Mr. Minton and his pastor saw the war cloud rising, and decided 
to leave the land of slavery for the free air of the North, that their 
children might never know the accursed institution. Mr. Minton, 
with his family, went to Ohio. Mr. McMillan, with his family, re- 
moved to Carlinville, Illinois. They never met again. But the 


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former pastor's efforts resulted in Mr. Minton's becoming principal 
of the Blackburn institution. With his family he arrived in Car- 
linville a month or two after Mr. McMillan had entered the Union 
army as chaplain. Prof. Minton found a building - , an able board 
of trustees, sufficient endowment, an abundance of material to work 
upon, and he recognized his opportunity. He quietly opened the 
school in September, 1862, with a few scholars. Boys were attract- 
ed to him like steel filings to a magnet. He was a man of varied 
attainments, accurate scholarship, a master of the art of teaching, 
with an intuitive knowledge of human nature — especially the boy 
part of it — faultless and unfailing insight into the best elements in a 
boy and ability to help him to discover himself, and withal, a pro- 
digious capacity for hard work. As the school grew, he was provid- 
ed with assistance. He had rare judgment in selecting teachers, and 
called to his side Rev. Thomas H. Newton, a graduate of Princeton, a 
man of scholarly attainments and skill as a teacher, though in deli- 
cate health. He was succeeded by Rev. John B. L. Soule. 

Prof. Minton possessed at least two remarkable if not unique 
traits of character which insured his success from the start. He 
was a boy among the boys and a man among men. He was with the 
boys in all their athletic games, and a match for the best of them. 
On the campus he shared the rough and tumble with them just the 
same as a boy. There was absolutely no difference on the play- 
ground, and it was his wish that there should be none. But in the 
classroom he was Prof. Minton, and it was not necessary to an- 
nounce the fact. Every one felt it and knew it. As a disciplinarian 
lie was faultless ; as instructor, without a superior. In mathemat- 
ics, the classic languages, and the sciences, he seemed equally profi- 
cient. He was perhaps happiest in mathematics, in which he never 
grew weary nor taxed the patience of his students. By his perfect 
knowledge of their nature, their difficulties and the working of their 
minds, he quickly discerned and promptly provided for the social 
and intellectual welfare of the boys. He was president of the liter- 
ary society by acclamation; the other offices were filled by the stu- 
dents, and in this organization they acquired skill in extemporane- 
ous speaking and familiarity with parliamentary procedure. While 
the rules were strictly enforced, there was the utmost freedom for 
wild and woolly eloquence — and there was plenty of it. 

A college faculty became necessary. Rev. John W. Bailey, D. D., 



an accomplished scholar and teacher of experience, was elected pres- 
ident. Prof. Minton was chosen to the chair of Mathematics; Dr. 
Soule became professor of Greek and Latin ; John D. Conley, a 
young graduate of Dartmouth, was given charge of the Physical 
Sciences. Necessary assistants for the professors were provided. 
The faculty has been increased from time to time. There has been 
a succession of presidents, each of whom has promoted in some 
special way the prosperity of the college. A large dormitory build- 
ing, class rooms, a science hall, and an astronomical observatory 
were erected, and the college grew beyond its accommodations and 
equipments. The first class was graduated in 1S70, and in June it 
celebrated its semi-centennial. The Chicago & Alton Railroad Com- 
pany has recently given the boarding department two Pullman pal- 
ace sleeping cars to be used as dormitories, and still hundreds of 
students have been turned away from lack of boarding accommo- 

Under the vigorous administration of President William M. Hud- 
son, the college has advanced and is advancing along all lines. Its 
endowment funds have been increased by gifts from the living, 
among which the Carnegie Fund and the Rockefeller Foundation 
are represented, and by bequests from departed friends, who knew 
and admired the college and its able administration. Its self-help 
arrangements, made possible by its nearby farm of two hundred 
acres, offers a college education to any worthy youth of limited 
means. It encourages and developes the spirit of self-reliance which 
was so prominent in the great founder of the college. This depart- 
ment is briefly described in the following extract from a letter of a 
former student: 

"Just when it looked as if there was not even a silver-plated lin- 
ing to my black cloud, a friend came to me with words of hope. He 
told me of a little prairie college out in southern Illinois, where he 
said, 'young men and women with plenty of grit and gumption, but 
not much ready cash, are given a chance to work for their educa- 
tion.' That was the college for me. I didn't lose any time writing 
to the president, and he wrote right back to me 'come along,' which 
I did. 

"Blackburn College is at Carlinville, Illinois, just about sixty 
miles north of Saint Louis. Possibly you've never heard of it, but 
it's got the biggest heart and about the least 'front' of any institu- 
tion of learning in the country. At Blackburn there are no ivy-cov- 



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ered impressive college buildings no atmosphere of wealth and 
power. Just two old brick buildings, built soon after the Civil 
War, two retired Pullman sleeping cars used as dormitories, and a 
two-hundred-acre farm. That's all. Yet that little college is put- 
ting one hundred young men and women on their feet each year. 
"When I saw those Pullman cars, and how ingeniously they had been 
fitted up into rooms for the students, and heard the story of how 
the president of the college had secured those two old sleeping cars 
from the Pullman Company because the college didn't have the mon- 
ey to build a needed dormitory, I felt satisfied. I knew I had come 
to the right place. If the president could work out such a scheme 
as that, I knew he could find work for a one-armed boy. 

''At Blackburn the young men run the farm and raise the food. 
The girls do the housework and cooking. By these means the stu- 
dents pay the larger part of their college expenses. Everybody 
works at Blackburn, not just a few self-supporting students. Presi- 
dent William M. Hudson, who started this unique self-helping plan, 
immediately found work for me around the buildings. My college 
course had started and my foot was on the first rung. ' ' 

A strong, educational feeling as a passion, a stirring impulse, 
seems to pervade our country. The great war seems to have ex- 
tended the horizon of our youth. Within the last half dozen years, 
the colleges of our country have increased their enrollment im- 
mensely. It seems that the youth of the land have caught glimpses 
of larger things, and have been quickened by an impulse to strive 
after higher places which they are conscious of the ability to reach. 

Mr. Julius II. Barnes, chairman of the institute of Public Service, 
says that during the last six years the number of students increased 
from 187,000 to 294,000. Mr. Barnes further says : 

"The six-year increase since 1911 is equal to eighteen institutions 
the size of Columbia in 1914, or 100 colleges the size of Vassar. Tak- 
ing the lower estimate for 1950, it means finding facilities over three 
times the total for 1920, at six or seven times the salary cost ; it 
means adding 644,000 students or 200 colleges the size of Yale last 
year, sixty universities the size of California, 400 colleges the size 
of Oberlin, over 1,000 colleges the size of Williams, 1,400 colleges 
the size of Bryn Mawr. Even if these 210 colleges arrange to ad- 
vance to 1,138,000, they will have reached only a small fraction of 
high school graduates." 

Blackburn College has had its full share of the increase. Its crop 
of students in this year's harvest is so large that its barns have 
burst and 125 applicants have been turned away for lack of accom- 



modations. But recent gifts have justified plans now maturing for 

The graduates and former students are scattered all over the 
United States and in many foreign countries, engaged in all the hon- 
orahle professions and occupations of life. Among those who have 
risen to prominence are : Maj.-Gen. John L. Clem, U. S. A., 
famous in Civil War history as "the drummer boy of Chick- 
amauga;" Brig.-Gen. Herbert H. Sargent, U. S. A., a dis- 
tinguished officer in the Spanish-American War, and author 
of a history of the same, as well as of masterly critiques of the Na- 
poleonic campaigns; President David L. Felmley, Illinois State Nor- 
mal College ; Dr. William W. McLane, author, and divine, New Hav- 
en, Connecticut; Mary Austin, author of "Outland," and other 
books; Judge Alfred R. Page, of the Supreme Court, New York 
City; Judge Frank Burton, of the Circuit Court, Illinois; Judge 
Lewis Binaker, Chicago, Illinois ; Hon. Edward A. Gilbert, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Nebraska; Rev. Harlan P. Carson, D. D., Huron, 
South Dakota, father of the State Synod and founder of Huron Col- 
lege; Captain Fenwick Y. Hedley, editor and author, New York 
City, formerly an assistant adjutant general in General Sherman's 
army, and author of a history of Sherman's campaigns and other 
volumes ; William A. Boring, architect of public buildings and Pro- 
fessor of Design, Columbia University, New York City ; Charles J. 
Smith, vice-president of Washington Trust Company, Seattle, 
Washington ; State Senators William L. Mounts and Thomas Rina- 
ker, of Illinois; William H. Anderson, Prohibition Leader; Hon. 
Henry G. McMillan, capitalist, Salt Lake City. 

Editor's Note. — The writer of the foregoing narrative was himself a graduate of the 
institution of which he writes. His career has been varied and highly useful. As a 
youth, he was a soldier under Grant and Sherman. He held various Presbyterian 
pastorates, and for some years was superintendent of Presbyterian Mission Schools 
and Church Work in the Far West, and as such instituted various schools, academies 
and colleges. He was secretary of two great boards of the Presbyterian Church — 
Home Missions, and Church Erection; and is now general secretary of the New York 
Sabbath Committee. His father, the Rev. Edward McMillan, mentioned as one of the 
Blackburn trustees, was a chaplain in Gen. Sherman's army, and died in front of Atlanta, 
Georgia, in the summer of 1864, his death due to exposure during his unceasing ministra- 
tions to the soldiers of, his regiment. He enjoyed the personal esteem of Abraham 
Lincoln, and in the political campaign of 1856 he introduced the future President to a 
large audience in Carlinville, Illinois; among his hearers were the writer of the fore- 
going narrative, and the editor of this magazine. Another of the trustees of the col- 
lege, John M. Palmer, became a major-general in the Union army of 1861-65, Governor 
of Illinois, and United States Senator. The New York Sabbath Committee of which Dr. 
McMillan is general secretary is not to be confounded with any of the present-day bodies. 
It had its origin in a mass meeting of New York City business men in 1857, and is there- 
fore in its sixty-fourth year. Its purpose was and is to secure to everyone the legal 
right to a weekly rest day, with the privilege of worship. 



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White Servitude in New York and New Jersey 

By William Stuart, M. A., of Eureka, Utah 


^jpAi^i STU D Y of the social conditions of a people is never com- 
fe?> ; i$)A;^| plete without a study of the labor problem. In colonial 
v\|^^\^| times this question resolves itself into a study of sla- 
&£&£. ] >&^i\ very and of white servitude. In order to understand 
the question of white servitude in America from the time of the 
first colonization to the time of the Revolution, it is necessary to 
know something of the labor conditions of England during the six- 
teenth and the seventeenth centuries, of the impossibility of the 
poor's being able to lift themselves out of their condition, and of the 
attempts to remedy their unhappy situation. 

It could be said in England as truly as in Palestine, "The poor ye 
have always with you," but labor conditions in England during the 
sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries increased the number of 
the needy. In the first place, grain-growing gave place to sheep- 
raising, for labor was scarce, wages were high, and sheep-raising 
became the more profitable of the two. The plague of 1348 and the 
peasants' revolt of 1381 had combined to bring this about. Dur- 
ing the plague of 1348, approximately one-third of the entire popu- 
lation died from the dread disease, and the poor, as is usual in such 
cases, suffered the greater loss. There was left not a sufficient num- 
ber of laborers to supply the demand. The natural result was a rise 
in the price of labor. Notwithstanding the edicts of Edward III. 
that no man should ask for higher wages, and notwithstanding Par- 
liament's ratification of those decrees, the anxious land owners of- 
fered more wages for laborers rather than let their crops go to 
waste. Furthermore, the peasants' revolt of about thirty years 
later had a like result. The struggle was against the system of 
villenage, which gradually became extinct, and the payment of 
money for service became very common. The outcome was a period 
of great prosperity for the laboring people, since both the plague 
and the peasants' revolt had caused an increase in the wages of the 



laborers, while at the same time food remained cheap and plentiful. 
That was not to continue, however, since it decreased the profit of 
the landlord. He turned to sheep-raising, since it required a small- 
er number of men to carry it on than did the cultivation of the 
ground. Another cause which contributed to the change of indus- 
tries was a growth in the demand for wool. Throughout the fif- 
teenth century we find this industrial change going on. As the busi- 
ness grew, it required more land, and that which formerly had 
been leased to the poor man now was no longer open to him. Sheep 
occupied it. During the sixteenth century enclosures increased so 
that there was neither room nor work for the poor man nor for his 

In the second place, as a result of this change in the system of 
farming, more people became indigent because they had to leave 
the land, they had no home ties, and they had no work. Since they 
wanted the land for their sheep, the land owners forced the laborers 
from the land in several ways : — they refused to renew the lease, 
they piled up the fines and the rents on the copy holder until he could 
not meet his obligations, and they enclosed the commons by fraud. 
In some instances villages were torn down and churches were used 
to house sheep. So these people lost their old homes where their 
ancestors had lived for generations. Then they did not care where 
they lived, and, having no regular occupation, they became paupers. 
Even the small farmers also were ruined. The number of Eng- 
land's poor increased and grew thus in appalling numbers. These 
changes in the labor conditions which increased the number of the 
poor, left them with no chance to lift themselves out of this class, 
for the laws regulated their wages, bound them as apprentices un- 
der certain regulations, and fixed their parochial settlement. 

In 1563 Parliament passed a law giving justices the power to fix 
the wages for laborers ; the only restrictions were that the officers 
should keep in mind the price of provisions. They were not of the 
laboring class, however, and they never favored the laborers. In 
1564 wages were seven pence for summer and six pence for winter 
for agricultural laborers, and nine pence for summer and eight pence 
in winter for artisans. In 1610 the wages for these workmen were 
the same except for a possible increase of two pence on the daily 
wage of the artisans. In 1634, wages were slightly increased — the 
farm laborers received eight pence in summer and seven pence in 



winter, and the artisan from one shilling to eight pence in summer 
and from eleven pence to seven pence in winter. In addition, in 
order that the wages fixed by the justices might not be surpassed, the 
person paying more was subject to a heavy fine. In one parish this 
fine was £5. Wages declined until a man received about one-fourth 
of what his grandfather had received for a day's work. 

The laws did not stop with the regulation of labor and wages, 
but they also regulated the apprentice system so that it acted as 
a restraint to labor. Only those who had served a seven years ap- 
prenticeship in the arts and the crafts could become a journey- 
man. But how were the poor to become apprentices when the 
money necessary for the articles was wanting? Formerly, under 
the guild system there was a fund for the apprenticing of the sons 
of poor men, but that time had passed. So it seemed that this law 
turned a very large class of laborers back to the farms and left that 
field open to whomsoever came. This was an apparent kindness, 
only; for we must remember that the judges, who fixed the wages, 
were favorable to their own class, — the land-owners. Starvation 
prices prevailed, therefore, and, in addition to the law, extended 
the apprenticeship system to the farms. There, too, the boys must 
serve until they were twenty-one. 

In the act of 1592 the laws went still further; they fixed the pa- 
rochial settlement of the laborers, and that every laborer's cottage 
should have four acres of land attached. This gave the laborers 
the right to be quartered on the land-owners in compensation for the 
entail of estates and the amassing of land. In 1662 an act was 
passed which gave church officials and overseers the power to secure 
the return of any person living in a house of less than £10 annual 
value to the parish from which he came. Then during the reign of 
William and Mary, in 1697, another act interprets the one of 1662 
as binding the people to their place of settlement. That may be 
where there is no work, while in the neighboring parishes work may 
be abundant and manufacturers may be crying for laborers. The 
result of these regulations was that the land-owners destroyed 
their cottages whenever they could, and got their labor needed from 
neighboring parishes. They regulated the wages paid their labor- 
ers through their quarter session rates, and left the home parish to 
make up the amount to keep the laborers alive. This law of set- 
tlement tied the poor man to the soil, made it possible for the land- 



owners to decrease the wages of their servants by putting the bur- 
den on a neighboring parish, and broke down the health of the la- 
borers by the extra exertion necessary to get to their work. It was 
a question of living, not of becoming well-to-do. 

Although labor conditions increased the number of the poor and 
they had no opportunity to lift themselves out of this class, there 
were attempts to remedy these conditions. The poor laws were for 
that purpose, according to their preambles, which explicitly states 
that they are for the good of the poor. They worked the other way, 
however, for the executive powers did not carry them out in a just 
and equitable manner. Sir George Peckham suggested another 
remedy, the transportation of the apprentices to the colonies to build 
up settlements. He expressed his views thus: "There are at this 
day great numbers . . . which live in such penurie and want, 
as they could be contented to hazard their lives, and to serve one 
year for meat and drink and apparel only, without wage in hope 
thereby to amend their estates." The government adopted this 
scheme partially; that is, they sent their poor as apprentices to 
the colonies, they sent their captives, and they sent their convicts, 
that they might be relieved of their support. And indeed Peck- 
ham was right about the poor's being willing to hazard the present 
for the hope in the future. They were willing to sell their time for 
the opportunity of bettering their condition later. They bargained 
directly with reputable companies, they came under contract with 
the people they knew, and they were the easy prey of "crimpers." 
Now it seems that these conditions in England not only show why 
people could be sent to America in this way, but they also show that 
white servitude in the colonies was a transplanting of the apprentice 
system to the American colonies with an extension to suit the con- 
ditions and supply the demands. 

Having considered the European background of white servitude, 
let us turn to a study of that system in the colonies of New York and 
New Jersey. What were the colonial conditions which made this 
sort of bondage possible in the colonies, what do we know about the 
people who became bond servants, what were the laws which gov- 
erned them, and what were the effects of this system on these two 
colonies ? are questions which it may be well to answer but which it is 
difficult to do fully. 



Wc, who have come to maturity, know something of the allure- 
ments of a new country; there can be found wealth and, after that, 
all that wealth can buy. The allurement of the New World was 
like it, and yet it was different. It was wholly new, boundless 
acres of productive lands peopled by a race which need not be 
considered. Commercially-minded Holland saw its possibilities ; the 
result was that she held her portion for gain, her plan of settle- 
ment included master and servant, and she attempted to supply the 
demand for cheap labor. 

Holland, as it has been stated, held her colony for gain. The 
purpose back of the project to settle the New Netherlands, which at 
that time included New Jersey as well as New York, was absolutely 
commercial. It was set on foot in the hope of increasing the re- 
sources of Holland in order that she might more successfully cope 
with Spain, her longtime enemy. As early as 1614, merchants of 
Holland petitioned for exclusive rights to trade in the new land. 
The numerous rules and regulations concerning trade with the In- 
dians, which form so large a part of the legislation for the colonies, 
also show the moving idea to be a commercial one. Had it been 
religious or political, Amsterdam would not have been jealous of 
the colonies. Moved by this spirit, the West India Company at first 
engaged in trade only, but it soon became apparent that to get the 
most out of the land, it was necessary to develop its resources. 

In order to develop the resources of their possessions, the com- 
pany saw that colonization was necessary: so they offered to men 
inducements to form colonies. The men who had the means, how- 
ever, did not wish to undergo the hardships, and the men who were 
willing to endure the privations and the dangers of pioneer life had 
not the wherewithal to bring them over. Therefore we find the plan 
of settlement included master and men, and goes under the name of 
the Patroon System. The company granted very large tracts of 
land to the Patroons on condition that in four years they would set- 
tle ' 'fifty souls, upwards of fifteen years old." These grants were 
to extend sixteen miles along one bank or eight miles along each 
bank of a water way, and back as far as desired. The Patroons, on 
their part, promised to furnish the farmers with houses, barns, 
cattle, horses, and tools. In return they were to receive rents to 
the value of one-third or one-half the produce and one-half the in- 
crease in the live stock. The farmers were to bind themselves to 



stay on the land for a period of ten years and develop its resources. 
Furthermore, they were to grind their grain at the Patroon's mill, 
offer their spare produce at his market, and hunt or fish only by his 
permission. If the farmer died without making his will, his prop- 
erty went to the Patroon. Certain of these manors and their peas- 
ants continued in New York to the time of the Revolution. On the 
whole, however, this was a species of serfdom which the farmers in 
Holland, where the serf had not existed for three centuries and 
where comfort and thrift at that time were general, did not appre- 
ciate. The consequence was that, in order to get settlers, the West 
India Company adopted a more liberal policy in 1638. This time 
they offered farmers tracts of land of reasonable size equipped as 
above indicated, for a yearly rent of eighty pounds of butter and of 
money equal to about $200 at the present time. The settler was to 
restore the original number of live stock to the company, keeping 
the increase for his share. These laws applied both to New Jersey 
and to New York. 

When the English took possession, they ratified the holding of the 
land as it then existed under the Patroon system. In New York 
there was nothing to indicate new offerings of land, but in New 
Jersey, to those arriving before January 1, 1665, and meeting the 
governor at the rendezvous, "armed with a good musket, bore twelve 
bullets to the pound, "with ten pounds of powder, with twenty pounds 
of bullets, and with six months provision for his own person arriv- 
ing there, 150 acres of land English measure ; and for every able 
servant, that he shall carry with him, arm'd and provisioned as 
aforesaid, and arriving there, the like quantity of 150 acres English 
measure: and for every weaker servant, or slave, male or female, 
exceeding the age of fourteen years, which any one shall send or 
carry, arriving there, 75 acres of land." In addition, to every mas- 
ter or mistress that should go before January 1, 1665, 120 acres of 
land, and for every able man servant sent, arm'd as above, 120 acres, 
and for every weaker servant over fourteen years, 60 acres were 
promised; to every free man or woman arriving in 1665, 90 acres, 
and for every able man servant sent, 90 acres, and for every weaker 
servant over fourteeen years, 45 acres were promised; to every 
free man arriving in 1666, 70 acres, for every able man servant sent, 
70 acres, and for every weaker servant 30 acres were promised. 

Yet even settlers were not sufficient ; if men came at all, they must 



come in companies. No man wants to be alone, he needs others 
for protection. In numbers there was some security from the In- 
dians, and then on that virgin soil everything was to be done. The 
ground was to be cleared and to be cultivated, forts were to be 
erected, houses and barns were to be built, mills were to be estab- 
lished, and roads were to be made. It is no wonder that Michaelius 
wrote in 1G28, "We need nothing so much as horses and cows, and 
industrious workers for the building of houses and fortresses who 
later on could be employed in farming, in order that we may pro- 
duce sufficient dairy products and crops." Over and over again, 
we find the plea, "send only the strong, for when these die we do 
not inhabit heavy burdens." Indeed, the West India Company very 
wisely agreed to send servants, but they could not send sufficient 
numbers. In a leter under date of May 8, 1657, is the following: 
"Regarding people sent hither I think it would be wise that the 
most or greater portion of those forwarded should be males, inas- 
much as strong and working people are, in the first instance, the 
most serviceable in these parts." And as late as 1658, having re- 
ceived bond servants from the almshouses, they write, "Please 
to continue sending others from time to time." It is useless to 
multiply instances, for it is clear that the colonists felt the need of 
laborers. Since it appears that the proprietors held the colonies 
for gain, that the plan of settlement included master and servant, 
and that the demand for cheap labor called for some such scheme, 
it is evident that colonial conditions made white servitude possible. 

In addition to finding some of the conditions which made white 
servitude possible, this investigation reveals some interesting 
things about the white servants themselves. The source of the sup- 
ply was threefold, they were divided into classes according to the 
nature of their contracts, and certain peculiarities of the different 
individuals appear. These servants came from different sources. 
Some were from Holland, others from England, others from the 
colonies themselves, while still others came from the Palatinate in 

Those who came from Holland were free willcrs, paupers, and 
prisoners. The free willers came. The Patroons agreed to furnish 
their farmers with a sufficient number of servants to help do 
the labor of the farms. That they found it very difficult to 
furnish these servants is quite evident, but in 1630 they sent 



over to their estates farm servants; and which they probably 
continued to do. These servants, it seems, came of their own accord, 
but, being unable to pay their own passage, they came under contract 
to work it out during a certain period of service. Not only free 
willers came, but the poor also. By the poor, here is meant those 
who were so poor that they had no choice ; volition was not theirs 
to exercise. Under date of 9th July, 1654, the Burgomasters of Am- 
sterdam wrote to Director General Peter Stuyvesant that as their 
almshouses were overcrowded, "we have concluded to relieve them 
and so do the Company a service, by sending some of them to New 
Netherland." "We have therefore sent over in the ship belonging 
to the bearer hereof, 7 and 28 boys and girls requesting you, in a 
friendly manner, to extend to them your kind advice and assist- 
ance, and to advance them if possible; so that they, according to 
their fitness, may earn their board." In 1658, other children from 
the almshouses in Amsterdam came to the almshouses of New Am- 
sterdam. The oldest were to be bound out for two years, the great- 
er number for three years, and the youngest ones for four years. 
After the arrival of these children, the colonists asked that still oth- 
ers might be sent. This probably continued during the Dutch con- 
trol. In addition to the free willers and the paupers, prisoners 
came. In the collection of New York documents are passages show- 
ing that the authorities made provisions for sending over "persons 
bound to serve, who shall be obliged to serve their bounden time." 
The editor explained that this refers to such persons as were in 
prison for crime, or were indigents. 

Those who came from England were convicts, prisoners of war, 
free willers, crimps, and apprentices. As early as 1611, Governor 
Dale urged the king to banish to Virginia all condemned persons so 
as to furnish much needed laborers. In 1617, prisoners from Ox- 
ford jail were sent to the colonies, and in 1619 some young people 
who had already suffered previous punishments were transported 
to Virginia. In 1693, the Committee of Trade for New York peti- 
tioned the authorities to send to New York all prisoners who were 
to be transported from Newgate. That some of these prisoners 
came to New York is altogether probable, for in the 4th of George 
II. we find that "convicts are frequently imported into this prov- 
ince," New Jersey. They came in such numbers that the colony 
considered them an injury and took action against such practices 



by passing a law fixing an import duty of £5 on each person, and 
demanding a security of £50 for their good behavior. In addition 
to these, prisoners of war also came as servants. After the con- 
quest of Ireland and Scotland, Cromwell and William of Orange 
sent soldiers and political prisoners to the colonies. That these 
prisoners were sent to the different colonies, we know by the laws 
and the newspaper advertisements of the times. The colonies of 
Virginia and Massachusetts passed, or tried to pass, laws against 
the importation of such persons. Although the writer has been 
unable to find anything about them in New York, the newspaper ad- 
vertisements of New Jersey show that Scotch and Irish servants, 
believed to be transported soldiers, were numerous. 

Of those coming from England, there are yet the free willers and 
the apprentices, and probably the crimps. The free willers came be- 
cause they wanted to, thinking, no doubt, that when their term of 
service expired they would have better opportunities to advance 
their own interests than under any other condition. The free wilier 
could become a land owner, which served to make him forget the 
possible hardships of a term of apprenticeship. The apprentice 
entered into a contract in England of his own pleasure or by the 
wishes of his parents or guardian. Then, too, there came from 
Scotland wealthy Scotch emigrants who brought with them their ser- 
vants and dependents. The crimp either was enticed by allur- 
ing advertisements and deceptive promises to agree to come, or he 
was sent against his will by some one interested in his disappear- 
ance, or he was kidnapped and shipped for money. It is difficult 
to distinguish between these classes, for the ship's master wished 
to get a good price for his men, and, though he evaded the law, he did 
not intend to be caught. That they sometimes passed convicts for 
free wallers, the New Jersey law, requiring a duty on and security 
for the good behavior of the convict, shows. The latter part says 
that if any such imported person should prove to be a convict, the 
importer should pay the duty and should give the security. The 
New Jersey advertisements frequently speak of servants as having 
been imported lately, and all persons whose residence was un- 
known were supposed to be imported servants, their word to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

In addition to the servants from Holland and England, there were 
large numbers from the colonies themselves. Of these the larger 



part were apprentices and free willers from the colony in which 
they were serving. This, one will easily perceive, if he will read 
some New York indentures or turn through New Jersey advertise- 
ments. The government urged New York to establish workhouses 
for the employment of the poor and indigent people. The church 
wardens and overseers then bound the children out until they 
became of age. In New Jersey the laws required the overseers 
to put to service all children whose parents or other relatives were 
unable to maintain them, and at fourteen years or sooner to bind 
out such children as apprentices. In New Jersey, also, it was law- 
ful to assign to those against whom the crime was committed insol- 
vent persons guilty of larceny not above £5. If such prisoner re- 
fused to go out as a bond servant, he was continued in prison on 
bread and water at his own expense until he paid his debt, by such 
service or by money. So it appears that although the colonies were 
dependent in the beginning on the mother countries for their supply 
of white servants, in later years a large percentage were native 

These servants, coming from Holland, from Great Britain, and 
from the colonies, fall into four classes on the basis of their articles 
of service. In general the indentures were alike in that they des- 
ignated the time of service, kind of service, and compensation 
for the service. In details, however, they varied in the different 
classes. The convicts who could not pay their passage were in- 
dentured for a term of seven years, and because of the long term of 
service, the colonies frequently preferred them. The judges in Eng- 
land fixed the length of time during which a transported person had 
to serve in America, so the colonists were sure of their service for 
seven years. The redemptioners were those who entered into con- 
tracts with the ship's master to come to the colonies and serve a defi- 
nite time for the payment of their passage. Their contracts were 
for five years. As to the terms of indenture, the difference between 
a convict and a redemptioner was in the length of time of service. 
Still another class were the free willers. They came to the colonies 
with the understanding that they were to have a certain number 
of days in which to make contracts with the colonists. If they failed 
to make terms, however, within the specified time, the captain of the 
ship in which they came made terms for them for apparel and pro- 
visions, and received pay for their passage. This system left the 



free wilier at the mercy of the captains and the masters, because 
they were not protected by the laws of the home country. The mas- 
ter and the captain each wanted to make the best bargain possible, 
so the terms of the indenture depended on how this struggle came 
out. It is probable that the term of service often was seven years, 
and convicts were often palmed off as free willers. 

Others served as apprentices. They might have come from abroad 
or they might have been native born. They were usually between 
the ages of fourteen and twenty-one. Sometimes, however, they 
were bound out as apprentices as young as five years. In a report 
made by Governor Hunter, of New York, and covering the period 
from 1710 to 1714, among the Palatine children apprenticed, sev- 
enty-four ranged in age from three to fifteen years, but the greater 
number were from twelve to fourteen years, while about forty of 
them were orphans. The common phrase applied to these younger 
children so indentured were "bound boy" and "bound girl." The 
indentures followed the usual form, with variations dependent upon 
the character of the master and the wealth of the guardian of the 
child. Sometimes the master received a sum paid by the guardian 
for taking the apprentice. In two instances the records show that 
the boys were to make recompense after their term of service had 
expired. Sometimes the parent even clothed the child. Usually, 
however, the articles designate the nature of the support furnished 
by the master as "meat, drink, and bedding and all other neces- 
saries meet and convenient for an apprentice," or "washing, meat 
and drink suitable," or "washing and lodging." 

Frequently, as New York indentures show, there were peculiar 
entries as to the nature of the service to be rendered — "our secrets 
keep," "well and faithfully serve," or perhaps, "cheerfully obey 
all commands." Sometimes there is no evidence of care for the 
child; again, someone has tried to secure for him the best of ad- 
vantages. On the one hand he was wholly abandoned to "go beyond 
seas or elsewhere;" on the other hand, some lover stipulated that 
he should not leave the State. Besides teaching the child his trade 
of hatter or cooper or shoemaker, the master often promised to 
teach him to read and write or to send him to school in the even- 
ings, or half the winter. And, in addition to the provision of the 
law that no servant should go empty away, the thoughtful friend 
sometimes provided that the apprentice should have some special 



recompense, as "the books and instruments necessary for the art 
of navigation," or "to make him a free man of the city according 
to law." 

The various laws and newspaper extracts show certain peculiari- 
ties of these servants who came from these three countries and 
served under these four kinds of indentures. Most of them were 
young, their dress was a strange medley, their trades ran the 
whole scale of occupations, and their characters were as full of 
frailties and as perfect as mortals usually are. The most of them 
were young. The general demand was for young people, because 
they were directed more easily and their term of service was longer. 
In West Jersey, servants who came without indentures and were 
under twenty-one years of age were to serve as long as the court 
should decide proper. In truth they, the colonists, wanted their 
servants neither too old nor too young. Letters to the Dutch of- 
ficials asked for persons of fifteen years of age or over. That this 
demand controlled the supply, newspaper extracts show. In New 
Jersey, the servants who got their names in the "Who's Wbo 
column," i. e., advertisements for fugitives, were generally young, 
ranging in age from eighteen to twenty-five or six. One man was 
forty years of age, another was fifty-six, while still another was 
"pretty elderly." 

Young or old, their dress was as varied as could be imagined, and 
frequently was a mark of the past estate of the wearer. John Med- 
ley was arrayed in a "Kearsey pea-jacket of a light color and Leath- 
er Buttons, an Ozanburg Shirt, a new Felt Hat, a Tickin pair of 
Breeches, Check Trowsers, Brown Stockings, and one square and 
one round Buckle in his Shoes." Another, a clockmaker, wore a 
fustian coat with white metal buttons, cotton striped jacket with 
thread buttons, yarn stockings, Ozenbrig breeches, a beaver hat 
and a leather apron. An Irish lad, eighteen and a half years old, 
had on a worn light Duroy coat, grey homespun jacket, tard cloth 
breeches, and he took with him two homespun coats and a jacket 
with silver buttons above the waist and brass below. Many of the 
garments indicated the condition of these persons in former times. 
Some had silver buckles and silver buttons, others had fine pleated 
shirts, fashionable clothes, and wigs, some light and some dark. 
There were round-toed and square-toed shoes, wooden heeled and 
leather healed; Duroy breeches with white silk puffs, and Scotch 



bonnets. A Palatinate who had served in the armies of France, 
Spain, Germany, Italy, Turkey, England and Scotland, had as ex- 
tensive a wardrobe. There was not a superabundance of clothes, 
though, as bare feet and legs bore witness. 

Turning from this incongruous dress to the occupations of these 
servants, we find almost all of the trades of that time included. 
There were barbers, and watchmakers, cloth weavers and stock- 
ing weavers, the English gardener and the Welsh potter, the almost 
blind blacksmith and the lusty English tailor. Then there were the 
pockbroken house carpenter, and the block complectioned butcher, 
the Jersey girl who used her needle well, and another who sewed 
and knit. There was the man who pretended to be a staymaker, 
and there was the Irishman who pretended to be a weaver. There 
were the English shoemaker, "a midling good workman," and the 
man who knew all about husbandry, and the shipbuilder, and the 
glassmaker, and many others who helped to do the work of those 
early days. At about the same time, April 13, 1657, the Dutch 
complained that none of those sent over as servants were able to 
make anything suitable, and we smile at the familiar sound. An 
Irish pedlar from New York, however, was so able that ten pounds 
reward was offered for his return. 

The characters of these servants were as varied as were their 
dress and occupations. The reasons for their coming, the laws 
enacted, the advertisements for fugitives, and the court proceed- 
ings, show that some were good and some were bad. Coming as 
they did, convicts, free willers, kidnapped, and paupers, they prob- 
ably were of all degrees of virtue. As a basis for good moral char- 
acter the law required the inhabitants to instruct their servants in 
religion and the laws of the land. If such persons should refuse to 
heed the teachings of their masters, they were subject to punish- 
ment, even to the extent of ten stripes if they were sixteen years of 
age. Some servants were frugal and careful. A German had 
served an indenture of several years and had gained his freedom. 
Then he came to his former master with a good sized bag of gold. 
When questioned as to why he had come as a redemptioner, he an- 
swered, "Oh, I did not know English and I should have been cheated. 
Now I know all about the country and I can set up for myself^' 
Such as he were not idlers. On the other hand, we have quite dif- 
ferent pictures in the advertisements for fugitive servants. An 



Irish servant is advertised as having "a down look," and another 
Irishman is said to have "a fractious countenance." Perhaps the 
looks did not belie the man in either case. An escaped serving 
man is described thus, "He is so prodigious a Iyer that if observed, 
he may easily be discovered by it." Advertisements for runaway 
servants in New Jersey show that the earlier reports gave the ser- 
vants as taking a few clothes, often only those that they had on ; 
later reports gave them as taking horses, and carrying away other 
things that belonged to their masters. Mary Tilson, who lied from 
Virginia with "other thieves" and came to New Netherlands, had 
stolen goods from her master to the value of one hundred fifty 
florins. They may have argued that they had earned it, but they 
knew that the law T deemed it a crime. From this data one may con- 
clude that many of the servants were of a wandering disposition, 
irresponsible and careless, while as many or more were sober and 
industrious. Yet, the fugitive servants, no doubt, were not of the 
best class and had undesirable masters and surroundings. The 
more earnest and the wiser ones knew that the effort to escape was 
futile, and that the easiest way out was to serve their time. This 
is, therefore, insufficient data because it gives a onesided picture. 

Another phase of the subject is the laws regulating white servi- 
tude in the two colonies. The legal status of the servants may be 
shown under three groups of relations. Some laws applied directly 
to the government of the servants, other laws gave the servants pro- 
tection, while still others defined the responsibility of the masters 
for the servants. The laws governing servants deal with them in 
relation to their masters — to the land system, to the government, 
to the right of marriage, to crimes and punishments, and to pleas- 
ures or amusements. 

The Dutch West India Company guaranteed the Patroons their 
right to the labor of their servants, and promised to try to return 
runaways. This same provision appeared in the regulations of 
1610. The settlers of New Netherlands did not think of servitude 
as debasing; a parent let out his children and transferred his 
parental rights to the master. If the master mistreated the child, 
the parent had a right to appeal to the courts, but the child's time 
and service belonged to his master. He should work the whole day, 
taking only such rest and time for food as his master should deem 
convenient. For the time specified, he belonged to his master. 



The white servant, also, bore close relation to the land. In the set- 
tlement of New Jersey and New York, as we have seen, the num- 
ber of acres a man had, depended largely upon the number of ser- 
vants he brought with him. The English continued this law, and 
later under a New Jersey article, the servant, after his term of ser- 
vice was over, was to have seventy-five acres, fifty acres, or twenty 
acres, according to the time of his coming to the colony and as to 
whether he was an adult or younger. 

There were laws also regulating the servant in his relation to the 
government and to the right of marriage. His relation to the gov- 
ernment appears in the regulation regarding the militia. The laws 
of New Jersey excluded bought white servants from serving in the 
militia, but they provided that apprentices between the ages of six- 
teen and fifty should serve. Their masters were to furnish arms 
and ammunition, if they were able; if they were not, the govern- 
ment was to lend these necessary articles. This law further pro- 
vided fines for failure to report for duty, from which the law excused 
the master if he had not the means to pay. The laws of the Duke 
of York, also, provided that servants and apprentices should serve 
in the militia and that their masters should bear the expense of arm- 
ing them. That New York would have been glad to use convicts in 
her militia, we are sure, for in a communication of June 12, 1693, she 
asked the authorities of Newgate to send what convicts were to be 
transported to recruit her militia. Again, in 1739, by excluding 
Indians and negro slaves unless it were ''to be Drummers, Trumpet- 
ers, or Pioneers," the law included white servants among those who 
might enlist. The regulations concerning the marriage of a servant 
are somewhat indefinite. Governor Andros reported that he could 
not be exact as to the number married. Later the laws demanded 
the consent of the master before a servant could marry. To make 
the law binding, a fine of £20 and expulsion from office was attached. 
The laws of New Jersey were similar. There the servant could not 
marry without the consent of the master and an approved minister ; 
a justice or some chief officer must perform the ceremony, after 
the publishing of the banns three separate times at public meetings. 
The punishment for an official's disobedience was £20 and dismissal 
from office. 

In addition, the colonists found it necessary to enact laws defin- 
ing crimes and fixing punishments for white servants. The laws of 



New Jersey and New York were alike in fixing a penalty of exten- 
sion of service on all apprentices and servants who absented them- 
selves from their masters. Usually they were to serve beyond their 
term of service double the time of their absence, and to make satis- 
faction for the expense and the trouble of the masters due to their 
absence. Persons aiding servants or apprentices to escape were 
liable to a fine of from ten to twenty-five pounds and to the cost 
incurred in capturing them. Justices of the peace had authority to 
raise the hue and cry after servants, and officers might press men 
and boats into service to pursue them by land or sea. A fine was the 
penalty for knowingly entertaining or aiding a runaway servant. 
To make it possible for servants to travel any distance, passes were 
necessary. Sometimes these passes had to show the seal of a mag- 
istrate, again a mere note from the master was sufficient. Servants 
who ran away and servants who were rude and disorderly, might 
be sent to the house of correction and, especially in the latter case, 
they might be subject to no more than thirty-nine lashes. Justices 
had the same power over apprentices as had the justices of England. 
The New Jersey Archives show that officers were not overcareful 
about unnecessary suffering of the criminal in administering pun- 
ishment, for the frost nipped the fingers and the ears of an Irish- 
man exposed in the pillory. 

Furthermore, there were restrictive laws regulating the pleasures 
and the business matters of the servants, as well as other acts. The 
servant was not to loiter in public places, but to be at home early. 
So, if one permitted apprentices or servants to remain at his place 
of business after eight or nine o'clock at night, he was liable to a 
fine of £5. The justices of New Amsterdam fined two masters be- 
cause their servants ran races on Sunday. They also demanded 
that the masters watch the servants carefully in order that such 
offences be not repeated. Not only were the servants not permitted 
to enjoy the pleasures of freedom, but they also were not to enter 
the commercial field in competition with the merchants or the trad- 
ers of New York. If they were guilty of giving away or selling any 
commodity, they might receive corporal punishment. Time to sleep 
and time to eat were theirs only as the gift of their masters. All 
workmen and all servants were to work in their calling the whole 

Not only were there laws regulating the conduct of the servants, 



but there were laws protecting the servants. Special laws gave the 
servants particular rights. Servants had a right to complain to the 
constable or the overseer of any mistreatment, and the officer was 
to protect the servant until the court should have decided the case. 
If a master destroyed the eye or maimed a servant, the latter went 
free and the court had the power to declare damages against the 
master. If the servant, however, were unable to prove that he had 
just cause for complaint, the judge might extend his term of service 
three months. Whether because these laws were not justly carried 
out or whether on account of the youth's inability to appreciate the 
situation, we do know that the New Jersey Archives report one 
boy, whose master had threatened with punishment and whose 
mother had recommended that he appeal to the authorities, as drown- 
ing himself. Again, servants might not be buried in New York 
without the presence of three or four of the neighbors and the pub- 
lic overseer to view the corpse. Neither was he to be buried any- 
where except in a public place designated by law as the burying 
ground. This was to prevent scandal about the master, or the pos- 
sible murder of the servant. Furthermore, laws protected servants 
from liquor sellers. The New Jersey laws provided that any per- 
son guilty of selling liquor to servants was liable to a fine of sev- 
enty shillings. The laws of New York, however, provided that ser- 
vants and apprentices might receive liquor if their masters con- 

In addition to the laws governing servants and protecting them, 
there were laws holding the masters responsible for the misdeeds of 
their servants. In the case of the abovementioned race, the two 
masters had to pay three guilders each for the escapade of their 
servants. Peter Colet had to pay a fine of fifteen guilders because 
his servant boy had injured another person. The master, also, was 
responsible for certain religious and moral instruction of their ser- 

The laws also demanded that the masters give the servants some 
certain provisions and supplies at the end of their term of inden- 
ture. Sometimes this gift consisted of "ten bushels of corn, neces- 
sary apparel, two horses, and an ax." Besides the ordinary gifts, 
we have seen that one indenture specified that the master should 
give the apprentice "the books and the instruments needed in the 
art of navigation." In another, the master was to make the ser- 



vant a free man of the city. The laws of New Jersey stated that the 
servant should receive two suits, one good falling ax, a good hoe, and 
seven bushels of good Indian corn, while the laws of New York said 
no servant should be sent empty away. The laws seem to govern 
the servant more carefully than they protect him. 

Now that we have considered white servitude as to its cause, the 
character of the individual servants, and the laws regulating it, we 
may ask, what was the effect of white servitude in New York and 
New Jersey? Did it. furnish the required labor? The answer is, 
no; it did not furnish enough of it, nor did it furnish the kinds re- 
quired. There was not the skilled labor needed. One statement 
says that servant men were as "precious as gold both in regard to 
our work and our protection." Because the supply of servants was 
not equal to the demands, the colonists were obliged to use negroes, 
thus making slave labor, on account of its need and cheapness, an 
institution in the colonies. In spite of the inducements offered, 
Governor Moore wrote that labor was so high that it would always 
prove a hindrance to manufacturing. Was it satisfactory to master 
or to servant? The servants showed that it was not satisfactory 
from their standpoint by running away, and the masters expressed 
their dissatisfaction in their laws, in their advertisements, and in 
their comments. In 164S, New Netherlands passed laws to force 
servants to work, and Governor Moore reported that the "Master 
of a Glass-house, which was set up here a few years ago, now a 
Bankrupt, assured me that his ruin was owing to no other cause than 
being deserted in this manner by his servants, which he had Im- 
ported at a great expense ; and that many others had suffered and 
been reduced as he was, by the same kind of Misfortune." What 
became of the released servants? The advertisements for fugitives 
indicate that some of them contracted indentures for another period. 
Many of the "boerc-knechts" (Dutch, servants) entered the fur 
trade, much to the detriment of the development of the colony. It 
is probable that many of the more restless characters returned to 
the mother country or wandered into some of the other colonies. 
According to Governor Moore the land-hunger of the people was as 
strong then as now, and many must have settled on the plot which 
the government gave them. What per cent, of these servants became 
intelligent and helpful citizens and what per cent, were worthless, we 



cannot tell, but we have the record which shows that John Peter 
Zangerin made good. We can find now only partial answers to 
these questions. Yet judging from the number so employed and 
from the absence of an overlarge pauper class, one infers that many 
of them made good use of the lessons of thrift and industry, and 
became a part of the bone and brawn of the commonwealth in which 
they had served as bound servants or as apprentices. 

In conclusion then, white servitude in the colonies was a part of 
the great labor question. It grew out of the previous experiences 
in Holland and England, and took its peculiar form on account of 
the colonial conditions. Nor has the problem entirely disappeared. 
Although it may differ somewhat in appearance, we find it in the 
system of child labor carried on in the sulphur mines of Campo 
Franco, Sicily, in the system of peonage present in some parts of 
our own country, and in the migration of people from the regions 
of low wages and little work to the regions of high wages and much 
work. The present-day problem involves the emigration of the 
young energetic laboring class so as to leave labor at home in a 
healthier condition, the establishment of joint stock companies in 
which the workmen have interests, the employment of the index 
number to maintain the proper adjustment and equalization to the 
variation in the cost of living, and the industrial schools maintained 
by great corporations and polytechnic institutions which are at- 
tempting to fill the place of the abandoned apprentice system. 

As this paper is brought to a close, the labor problem is one of the 
great questions of the world. M. Clemenceau, in his opening address 
at the Conference at Versailles, named "international legislation in 
regard to labor" as one of the three great questions to be settled by 
the Conference. And the Commission on International Labor 
Legislation, one of the commissions of the Peace Conference, hoped 
to arrange for a "Labor Parliament" to meet under the auspices of 
the League of Nations to adjust international labor problems. So 
white servitude in the colonies of New York and New Jersey is but a 
short chapter in the general history of labor from the time "when 
Adam delved and Eve span." 


Chapters in the History of Halifax, Nova Scotia 

By Arthur Wentworth Hamilton Eaton, M. A., D. C. L. 

No. XVI 
The Great Tragedy of 1917 

"I most deeply regret to hear of the serious explosion at Halifax, resulting in great 
loss of life and property. Please convey to the people of Halifax, where I have spent 
so many happy times, my true sympathy in this grievous calamity." 

King George of England to Lieut. -Governor Grant. 

HILE wide districts of France and Belgium were being 
devastated by t-he invading hosts of the Kaiser, and 
bombs were falling, though with comparatively little 
effect, upon London as upon Venice and Padua, in the 
War, Halifax was the scene of a calamity hardly 
than that which had fallen on Ypres and Rheims. 
Shortly before Tuesday, December 6th, 1917, among the many 
ships that throughout the fateful period of the war stole si- 
lently into and out of Halifax Harbour, was one whose mission 
was alleviation of the miseries of war, not the aggravation of war 
miseries. This was the Belgian relief ship I mo, whose immedi- 
ate destination was a neighbouring United States port, whither she 
was bound to take in supplies for the sufferers in that brave Euro- 
pean country wmose heroic action at the outset of the war had foiled 
the ruthless ambition of the Germans, and under Divine Providence 
had saved the world from conquest to their unscrupulous autocratic 

In the early morning of the 6th, this relief ship, without any cargo, 
was moving from her anchorage in Bedford Basin towards the nar- 
row passage that connects that sheltered water with the harbour 
below. She was in charge of an experienced pilot, and was moving 
at a moderate rate of speed. At the same time, coming up the har- 
bour towards the narrows, was a French munitions ship, the Mont 
Blanc, which had left New York on December 1st, loaded with high 
explosives, making Halifax her final port of call before sailing for 



France. Sighting each other when about a mile apart, the two 
ships held steadily on their respective courses, up and down the 
harbour. As they approached each other, they gave what the offi- 
cers of the French ship and the few survivors of the crew of the Bel- 
gian ship all testified in the formal investigation that was soon held 
to determine the causes of the explosion, were the proper signals to 
indicate the courses they were taking in respect to each other. Con- 
flicting evidence given at this court of inquiry leaves the public in 
some doubt as to the relative measure of responsibility properly to 
be laid on the officers of each ship, but in some way there was disre- 
gard of the signals, and suddenly the Imo, going at what seems to 
have been an unreasonably high rate of speed, came into the Mont 
Blanc's water and rammed the French ship on the starboard side. 1 
The Mont Blanc's cargo comprised a small stock of miscellaneous 
ammunition, with shells of various calibre, a deck-load of benzol, 
carefully protected in her hold probably as much as a thousand 
tons of "T. N. T.", a recently discovered deadly explosive, one of 
the most powerful destructive agents known to mankind, her outer 
hold containing a great store of picric acid. In spite of the fact that 
she bore such a dangerous cargo, however, the ship carried no red 
flag or other signal which would have advertised the nature of her 

Almost immediately after the collision, flames began to burst from 
the Mont Blanc's side where she had been pierced by the Imo's stern, 
and as quickly as possible, knowing their peril, the munitions ship's 
crew manned the boats and pulled towards the Dartmouth shore, the 
last persons to leave the ship being the captain, Aime Lemedec, and 
the pilot Mackey, who had been engaged to bring the ship in. Left 

'Unofficial statements as well as statements made under oath concerning the explo- 
sion have necessarily had some weight with the public. Dean Llyd, of All Saints' 
Cathedral, in a detailed interview very soon after the tragedy, said he had questioned 
some of the patients in the hospitals who had been on ships and boats in the harbour 
at the time of the explosion, and their testimony agreed "that until the two ships were 
within from one to two hundred yards of each other their relative movements were 
as they should have been, their respective positions were correct; but at that point the 
French munitions ship suddenly swerved to the left so as to lay herself right across the 
line of the Belgian relief ship, thus making it impossible for this ship to avoid collid- 
ing with her. Similar testimony was afterward given in my hearing by a young man 
who was on a small vessel in the harbour ; he saw the collision, and his evidence placed 
the responsibility on the French ship. Before he and his men flung themselves to the 
deck of their craft, he had seen the explosion for a fraction of a second, and he 
testified that it seemed as if the French ship had burst asunder, showing a ragged fur- 
nace within. The force of the explosion was so terrible that he saw the Rope-Walk 
at Dartmouth apparently poised in the air before the building crashed in." 



to herself, ihe Mont Blanc, burning, began to drift towards Halifax, 
and twenty minutes after the fire first appeared, at between 9.05 and 
9.06 o'clock, the dreadful cargo of the death-dealing munitions ship 
exploded, and the whole population of Halifax and Dartmouth, not 
a man, woman, or child escaping at least severe shock, was visited 
with a calamity comparable only to that of a destructive earthquake 
or the sudden eruption of some terrible volcanic mountain in whose 
shadow defenceless towns and villages lay. On both sides of the 
harbour, for a distance of several miles north and south, houses were 
fiercely shaken, fissures made in their walls, doors wrenched violent- 
ly from solid hinges, windows shattered so that showers of 
broken glass fell everywhere, outside and in, and mirrors and pic- 
tures and china on the walls hurled from the places that held them 
and piled into pitiful heaps of wreckage and ruin. 

The district that suffered most in the explosion was that roughly 
bounded on the south by North street, on the north by Eockhead Hos- 
pital, and on the west by the well-known "Exhibition Grounds." 
Here was utter devastation, a devastation such as no other single 
stroke of the war anywhere produced. Within this area the great 
majority of living creatures were killed, either by the direct force of 
the explosion, or by flying timbers or shells or torn pieces of steel 
and iron, with which the air was suddenly filled. An official report 
issued in March, 1918, gave the number killed as 1,800, but all who 
escaped alive were more or less seriously injured, many being piti- 
fully bruised and torn by the hail of debris, and many totally or par- 
tially blinded by broken glass. From beneath the ruins of what a 
moment before had been comfortable houses, or shops or factories, 
people with shattered and bleeding bodies, if they could get out at 
all, painfully dragged themselves, looking agonizingly for help which 
there was none to give. Through the streets surged terror-stricken 
men, women, and children, with blood streaming from their wounds, 
faces blackened by smoke and soot, and piteous cries of distress on 
their lips. Liberated from the stables where they had been stand- 
ing, or the hitching-posts where they had been tied, horses ran mad- 
ly about the district, dragging behind them the broken remains of 
the vehicles to which they had been harnessed. Simultaneously, a 
hundred fires blazed up, along the sidewalks sputtered and fused 
live electric wires dangling from poles broken in halves from the 
shock, while trees that in summer had given grateful shade to the 



streets, denuded of their leafless branches, stood stark and charred, 
mute witnesses to the explosion's fierce, destructive power. "It was 
Dante's Inferno done into actuality." Said one local report of the 

"In the meantime every house and store and factory in the town 
had felt the shock and suffered from it. Even beyond the far dis- 
tant Northwest Arm, and on the boundaries of Point Pleasant Park, 
houses were rocked and windows shattered by the force of the con- 
cussion or by the tremendous air-pressure which followed it. Vir- 
tually every plate-glass shop window in the city was smashed, and 
every street had its quota of cut and bleeding people. On the edges 
of the devastated zone, houses which were left standing were so 
badly shaken as to be rendered untenantable ; and everywhere the peo- 
ple who had been spared death were seen running about the streets 
in panic. At the A\ r ellington Barracks, which were wrecked, many 
soldiers were killed. Later, fire broke out in close proximity to the 
magazine at the barracks, and, on account of the danger of a second 
explosion, a general warning was given. In consequence of this, the 
open spaces everywhere were quickly filled with people, many of 
them cut and otherwise injured. A great cloud of smoke which 
arose from the doomed ship as she exploded, was visible for half an 
hour above the devastated area and was later enlarged by the 
smoke which arose from the burning buildings; the air was full of 
soot and grit, which overlaid everything within the radius of the 
city. About an hour after the warning had been sent out of a pos- 
sible second explosion, the fire at Wellington Barracks was brought 
under control, and a message was dispatched telling the panic-strick- 
en people to return to their homes. In the meantime, rescue par- 
ties of soldiers and civilians had been organized, and the work of 
digging out any who might still be alive in the debris of the wrecked 
area was begun. The hospitals were filled with patients, and those 
who were the least seriously injured were compelled to wait until 
the graver cases had received attention. Temporary hospitals, also, 
were opened in any building sound enough to offer them a roof and 
four standing walls ; every public building in the city became a 
shelter for homeless citizens and lost children." 

The Anglican Cathedral of All Saints stands in the south-west 
part of the city, at least three miles from the scene of the explosion, 
and at the moment when the explosion occurred the Dean of the 
Cathedral was reading prayer. Said this clergyman : 

"I was standing in the Chapel of the Cathedral reading morning 
prayer in accordance with the rules of our Church, when the explo- 



sion took place. The congregation was composed of three persons, 
my wife and two other ladies. I had just risen to my feet from say- 
ing the first prayers and was beginning the psalms, when I felt 
a powerful vibration like that of an earthquake. I said to myself 
at once : 'That is a German shell.' It flashed across my mind that 
a submarine must at last have crossed the Atlantic and bombarded 
Halifax. Two or three seconds passed. Suddenly there came an 
appalling roar. The building trembled. The glass began to fall in 
showers from the windows on the north side and at the two ends of 
the structure. The effect was frightful ; the whole fabric seemed 
to be falling in upon us. A feeling of utter powerlessness, as if we 
were in the grip of some enormous force, possessed me. I dashed 
to the nearest door, my second thought being that a munitions fac- 
tory was exploding. I guessed that the shock came from the north, 
because of the collapse of the north windows of the building, and 
of the north transept doors, which were of solid oak and would al- 
most have withstood modern artillery. In the distance I saw a 
large cloud, yellowish gray, rising skywards. As it rose it took on 
the form of a huge baleful flower unfolding in the air. Realizing at 
once that my guess was correct, that the explosion was from some 
munitions source, I turned back to the ladies of the congregation 
and said to them, ' It is all over, it must have been a munitions explo- 
sion at some point north. We can go on with our service. ' We did 
not, however, finish the service entirely, but closed it with two or 
three prayers. 

"I then went home, and after a few minutes started down town. 
On the way, I met a member of my congregation, Mr. W. E. Hewat. 
He was greatly agitated. He said: 'You have no idea at all, here 
in the south end, of the disaster that has happened to the north end. 
I have just come on the train from Truro. We were compelled to 
alight at a point beyond Richmond. I felt the explosion, it lifted 
the train. After leaving the train, I walked right through the dis- 
trict and was an eye-witness of the frightful ruin which has been 
caused. Everywhere houses razed to the ground, buildings of con- 
siderable size mere heaps of bricks. Fire has started, and the 
wounded and dying are lying around in twos and threes.' 

"I was so much impressed by what Mr. Hewat told me that I went 
down town with him and got into a motor car, which took me up to 
North Street Station. The glass in the station was all blown in, 
and the building itself had suffered a good deal of damage. I was 
anxious for the wounded and the dying, and so made my way 
through the fire and smoke to a point just about one-quarter mile 
beyond Richmond. I arrived there about 10 o'clock. The scene 
was horrifying in the extreme. The houses were mere heaps of 
boards, with here and there bits of furniture showing themselves. 
Virtually the whole of the area was in flames. I found a relief party 



of soldiers taking out the wounded, with a young Roman Catholic 
priest helping them. I joined the party, and assisted in lifting out 
a number of poor crushed and mangled forms, many of them of 
persons who must have died before they reached the hospital. They 
were being taken down to the shore line and placed upon tugs sent 
to convey them to one of the ships, which was already being used 
as a hospital. After that section had been thoroughly stripped of 
its wounded and dying, I went still further into the zone of devasta- 
tion, and found a relief company of about twenty soldiers who 
were acting under command of a young officer. They had been busy 
taking up the wounded. The officer asked me what should be done. 
I suggested that the dead should be taken out of the ruins and laid 
side by side, in order that when the proper time came they might 
be identified. The soldiers went to work with vigor, and in a short 
time they had taken over thirty inanimate forms from the debris. 
Several living horses, also, were discovered and freed. One poor 
old man was found lying- face downward by the side of his horse 
and shattered cart. People had been killed in almost every conceiv- 
able way, heads and shoulders bloAvn off, skulls crushed, limbs torn 
away, and great gashes made in the sides. One striking freak of the 
explosion was the stripping of a man's body of its clothing, without 
leaving any mark of injury on the body itself— the poor fellow had 
been killed by shock. We worked until after 2 o'clock, when I took 
a sergeant down town with me to the City Hall and interviewed the 
city authorities as to the disposal of the bodies. They promptly 
appointed Chebucto Road Schoolhouse as a temporary mortuary, 
and sent with the sergeant a member of the city staff to make ar- 
rangements for the transfer of the dead to it as their resting place 
for a time. 

"After this, I went home to eat a scrap of luncheon, and then took 
my way to the Camp Hill Hospital, where the wounded were brought 
in until every square yard of space seemed to be occupied. It was 
a heartrending scene. No one who beheld it could ever forget it, 
nor, on the other hand, could any eye-witness fail to render a tribute 
of high admiration to the doctors as they went to and fro upon the 
work of relief, and to the nurses and other young women who were 
already present in numbers trying to alleviate the sufferings of the 

To the horrors that were directly caused by the explosion were 
added the sufferings of people from cold and snow. The next day 
after the explosion found Halifax in the grip of a blizzard, which 
grew more and more violent as the day went on. Before night, auto- 
mobile traffic was completely stalled, and news kept coming to the 
stricken city that relief trains bringing much needed supplies were 



During the day and night following the explosion, agonizing 
scenes were witnessed as people frantically searched the ruins at the 
city's north end for the bodies of their loved ones, husbands for 
wives, parents for children, and children for their parents. As soon 
as the newspapers could resume publication, lists of the dead began 
to be printed, and the whereabouts of missing people who were alive 
to be disclosed. The spirit of the people was very fine, even at the 
regular morgue, where many hundreds of the explosion's victims 
were carried, and where people who could not find their relatives 
elsewhere crowded to get possible ghastly light on the fate of those 
they held dear. The bodies at the morgue were divisible into three 
classes — those easily identifiable by reason of the fact that they 
were very little defaced and who had near relatives to identify them ; 
those whose identification was more difficult because so many of their 
near relatives were killed that there were only comparative strang- 
ers to decide who they were ; and those whom it was hard for even 
their nearest friends to identify, because of their mutilation or the 
ravages on them of the hideous flames. Pathetic, indeed, were the 
bodies, of which there were very many, of little children, some of 
whom had lost their lives in schools and at the Orphanage, some 
while they were taking their morning meal in their simple North 
End homes, some as they lay in their cradles, some as they toddled 
after their mothers as the latter went about their necessary house- 
hold tasks. 

Occasionally the mortuary was the scene of collapse resulting 
from shock to the nerves of seekers for the dead. One such case 
was that of a young, vigorous looking man, who having vainly sought 
his little sister elsewhere, hoping that she might still be alive and in 
the kind care of charitable friends, came late at night to the mor- 
tuary. " Alas for hope! There, not much defaced by the cruel bolt, 
but sleeping the sleep that knows no waking, the little girl lay, and 
without a sound the brother fell to the floor and for over an hour it 
was thought that the shock had been fatal to him, that his strong 
man's heart had stopped beating. Aid was summoned, however, and 
he was ultimately restored." To the morgue came, over and over, a 
heart-broken father searching for the body of one of his little boys. 
He had had five children, and three of them he knew were safe. One 
little boy had perished, and his body had been found, but the fate of 
this other he could not learn. Thinking that the missing child might 



have been carried with other refugees to Windsor, Truro, or New 
Glasgow, he visited each of these places in turn. At last the morgue 
disclosed the child's mutilated form. In some cases the mother 
and three or four children were killed, while the father was spared; 
in other cases, the father and one of several children were killed 
while the mother and the remaining children were spared ; in some 
cases the parents and some of the children were killed while one or 
two children escaped; of some families of considerable size, not a 
single member survived. Wrote some one describing the effects of 
the tragedy : 

"The saddest hours of the relief workers were spent in inter- 
viewing parents whose children could not be found. A detailed 
description was kept on the files of every child alive and unclaimed, 
and as each inquirer appeared the list was consulted. The faintest 
clue was followed to the end, full particulars were obtained from 
every town where refugees had been taken, concerning the children 
among the_ refugees, and inquiries were made along the various 
lines of railway. Over and over again, the missing child was re- 
ported to have 'been seen with a soldier,' or to have 
been 'carried away by a sailor,' or to have been 'put 
with other children in a cart, ' and sometimes, but not always, such 
reports were found to be true. ' Where are their parents F in a con- 
spicuous headline queried the "Evening Mail" newspaper on the 
7th of December, the day after the explosion. Underneath was 
printed: 'Two children, the whereabouts of whose parents is un- 
known, are at the Grafton Street Methodist Church hall-Alfred 
Tompson, of Stanley street, and Nellie Moore, of Barrington street. 
At 363, Robie street, is little Helen McGrath, who savs her father 
is employed on the train. At Dr. McFatrid^e's, on Robie street, 
are three children who lived on Russell street." 

Somewhere about noon of December 8th, a squad of soldiers of the 
63rd Regiment who were searching for bodies among the ruins at 
Richmond, saw another uniformed soldier frantically digging in a 
cellar filled with smouldering debris. "Here was my home," said 
the man, "and I am sure I heard a moan a minute ago." The sol- 
diers listened intently, and soon all heard distinctly the faint moan 
of a child. With desperate energy they turned to digging, and in 
a short time, under a stove, sheltered by the protruding ash-pan, 
they found the eighteen months old baby daughter of the man who 
had lived there, the child miraculously still alive. Her mouth was 
slightly cut and there was a bruise or scratch on her face, but when 



she was taken to a hospital she quickly revived. Searching further, 
the soldiers found the bodies of the man's wife and the remaining 
five children of his family, who had all probably been instantly killed. 

One of the most interesting and touching things to be recorded in 
connection with the relief which in so many quarters was promptly 
tendered the Halifax sufferers, was the readiness shown all over the 
continent of America to adopt children who had been left orphans by 
the catastrophe. From New York and Washington, from Montreal 
and Vancouver, from Quebec and Charlottetown, and even from 
far-away New Mexico and Arizona, soon after the explosion, letters 
and telegrams began to pour in upon the relief commissioners from 
people who were anxious to adopt orphaned little ones. Today there 
are many widely scattered homes throughout the United States and 
Canada that are blessed by Halifax children whose parents and oth- 
er near relatives who would naturally have cared for them, were all 
killed in the explosion. 

When it was possible to make an accurate estimate of the total 
number of people killed in the explosion, an official report, as we have 
said, placed the number at 1,800; by January 1st those who had the 
cases in hand of people whose eyes had been injured, had the sad re- 
port to make that 41 had been totally or nearly totally blinded, while 
85 had suffered the loss of one eye, the other remaining untouched. 
Of persons whose eyes had been less seriously injured, or the out- 
come of whose injuries could not then be foretold, the number was 
given at 205. 

The complete destruction of buildings in the explosion, like the 
sorrowful destruction of life, was fortunately limited almost entirely 
to the North End. In the central portion of the town, the public 
buildings escaped with little damage, while the residences of the 
richer inhabitants, which in great part lay in the south and south- 
western portions, like the public buildings, for the most part suf- 
fered chiefly in the breaking of glass. But the North End, within 
the limits we have designated, had most of its buildings completely 
destroyed. In a moment, blocks and blocks of what had been com- 
fortable homes, moderate-sized houses entirely suited to the people's 
needs, were tumbled to the earth, a mass of hideous wreckage and 
waste. In the district commonly known as Richmond, was then the 
chief railway passenger terminal of the city, and this building, with 
the freight sheds connected with it, was unroofed and otherwise in- 



jured, the tracks for a long distance being covered thick with, debris. 
In the freight yards, five hundred loaded freight cars were stand- 
ing, and these shared in the general ruin. The great piers at the 
south end of the city were too far removed from the scene of the ex- 
plosion to suffer, but the dry-dock, which as a newspaper said had 
been "a great factor in the upbuilding of the port, and a wonderful 
aid in these days of shipping troubles," was in great measure de- 

For a time, railway transportation to and from the city was ren- 
dered difficult by the fact that hundreds of railway employees lived 
in the devastated region and had had their homes destroyed and 
their families either seriously injured or else killed. Of local rail- 
way men in active service, 58 were killed, and their fate was shared 
by fifteen others who were on the retired-pension list. Of living 
railway men, forty were more or less seriously wounded. 

Throughout the North End were many churches of the various de- 
nominations of Christians, as well as the school buildings of both 
secular and parochial schools, and these were all either tumbled to 
the ground, or else, left standing, defaced and blackened and 
broken shells. A conspicuous schoolhouse on Kaye street that had 
sheltered the Roman Catholic St. Joseph's parochial school was one 
of the buildings that was wrecked completely but not thrown down. 
In this building forty children lost their lives. In the machine-shops 
of the dry-dock, at the moment of the explosion, 235 men were work- 
ing, and of these workmen 120 were killed. By the destruction of 
North End houses, probably 20,000 people were left without homes. 

The news of the disaster to Halifax was of course quickly tele- 
graphed to the other cities and towns of Canada and to all the lead- 
ing cities of the United States, and never in history was more 
prompt and generous response made to the needs of a suddenly af- 
flicted people. By mayors of cities, by organizations of a social or 
philanthropic character, and by many persons in public and private 
life, magnificent offers of help were immediately made. From the 
Nova Scotia towns, — "Windsor, Wolfville, Kentville, New Glasgow, 
Amherst, and Truro; and the New Brunswick towns St. John and 
Moncton, supplies were as quickly as possible put on trains and 
shipped to Halifax, and to most of these places considerable num- 
bers of the blinded and otherwise wounded victims of the explosion 
were sent. On the very night of the disaster, a special train consist- 

47 . 


ing of two sleepers, a buffet, and a baggage car, was rushed from 
Boston, carrying eleven physicians and surgeons from the Massa- 
chusetts State Guard, ten nurses, two quartermasters, and a delega- 
tion from the Red Cross. Throughout the Bay State metropolis 
there was little talked of for days but the unparalleled disaster that 
liad come to a neighbour city. Almost immediately, influential relief 
■committees were organized here, and at 9 o'clock on the morning of 
December 7th, a train carrying 102 expert Red Cross workers, in- 
cluding 25 Boston surgeons and 67 women nurses, with $50,000 
worth of supplies, was dispatched for Halifax. The next day the 
-Boston "Evening Transcript" said: 

"The developing horror of the disaster at Halifax, is so terrible 
that the mind dare not dwell on it. To ruin and death there has 
been added the desolation of storm. The human suffering caused, 
appears in an endless and still rising climax. Of a truth it seems 
that the pain-ridden city stands deserted of God. Let denial be 
given this lying semblance. Let such a restoring flood of human 
mercy be poured out upon Halifax, let there be such unlimited 
giving of goods and of service that even in human compassion men 
shall see the miracle of the divine mercy at work. Any man, 
woman, or child still living in comfort who can give to Halifax, but 
who fails to act on the impulse, blackens both heart and name for all 
time. All records of relief funds and salvage must be broken by 
the subscription which is now going forward. 

"As for those who are charged with responsibility as the bearers 
of American succor to Halifax, they should cut every shred of red- 
tape that may hinder their efforts. The National Red Cross and 
the Boston-Halifax relief committee should act as though on a guar- 
anty that for whatever measures they order, funds will be promptly 
forthcoming. It must certainly be so. We can face no future in 
conscience if we fail now in any least way the awful necessity of 
the people of Halifax, who have been fighting our war and who 
still stand with us in arms and in dominant purpose." 

On the 8th, also, word was telegraphed to Boston from Halifax: 
"The Bay State's relief party, bringing a complete organization in- 
to a city still stunned with the horrors of its catastrophe, is tonight 
leading the way out of the hysterical confusion which has pre- 
vailed." Into the giant task of bringing order out of chaos in the 
bewildered city, of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, minister- 
ing to the wounded, and helping bury the dead, with organized skill, 
in conjunction with many of the Halifax people themselves, and with 



other Canadians, the New England doctors and nurses and other 
relief -helpers plunged, and before long the sufferings of the people 
were vastly lessened. On the morning of December 9th, another 
dispatch from Halifax to Boston said: 

"The work of relief was organized today at a meeting of Ameri- 
cans and Canadians, officials and volunteers, who are here with gen- 
erous resources at their command, to restore so far as possible the 
injured, and provide food and clothing for the 20,000 who are desti- 
tute. Tonight the work of organizing the various relief units into 
a workable whole with a general direction that will avoid duplication 
of effort and tend to the greatest utility, was well under way. Fed- 
eral and provincial Red Cross aid, supplemented by volunteer units 
from other Canadian cities and from the United States, was being 
capitalized to the best advantage. The Massachusetts relief train 
which, after having been stalled much of the night in snow drifts 
near the Nova Scotian border, arrived today bringing the first con- 
tingent of physicians, nurses, and supplies, was the first of several 
trains on the way from the American side." 2 

An earlier paragraph of the same dispatch says : 

" Orders for 4,000 coffins were sent today to a coffin manufacturing 
company at Amherst. While there will be no immediate need of this 
number, the order was placed to be filled as working conditions at 
the plant would permit. Late in the day, dredging parties working 
under the direction of naval authorities, dragged ashore two hun- 
dred bodies of sailors, soldiers, and laborers, recovered from the 
bottom of the harbour. Another searching squad reported having 
found forty bodies in the hulk of the Belgian steamer I mo, which 
collided with the Mont Blanc." 

On the 9th, also, a relief ship, the Calvin Austin, sailed from Bos- 
ton with many more Bed Cross helpers, and a store of supplies val- 
ued at $300,000, this expedition under chief control of the Collector 
of the Boston port. As soon as the imperial government received ac- 
curate news of the catastrophe, it appropriated, in two grants, no 
less a sum than $9,000,000, while the Dominion government made 
grants in all of $12,000,000. From every province in Canada and 
from all the leading Canadian cities, came generous contributions of 
money, while New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and 
many other United States cities, as well as Boston, subscribed noble 
sums. In London, Liverpool, and Manchester, the lord-mayors of 
these cities at once opened subscription lists; in the West Indies, 

'It is curious how commonly both United States people and Canadians use the term 
"Americans" to designate people of the United States in contrast to Canadians. 



various provinces of South America, Australia, and even China and 
Japan, large contributions to the relief fund were made. 

From the feverish distrust and hatred of the Germans that existed 
in all the British dominions throughout the period of the war, and 
with the actual knowledge people had of the diabolical lengths to 
which the friends of Germany were -willing to go in the destruction 
of the lives and properties of their enemies, it was inevitable that 
the explosion of the French munitions ship in the harbour of Hali- 
fax should in the over-excited popular imagination be promptly set 
down as the working-out of a German plot to destroy a city which 
had served as the port of departure for many thousands of troops 
sent overseas to defeat, if possible, the Kaiser's hosts. In some 
quarters, however, a calmer judgment prevailed, and as more light 
was thrown on the tragedy, a fairly general opinion came to prevail 
that the explosion was an accident, blameworthy indeed as an acci- 
dent, but not the terrible consummation of a hideous German plot to 
destroy human lives. 

In a short time, under a Provincial statute and with the co-opera- 
tion of the naval authorities of the Dominion of Canada, a legal in- 
quiry was begun in the Nova Scotia Supreme Court to fix the respon- 
sibility for the disaster, and after many weeks spent in taking evi- 
dence in the case, his honor, Mr. Justice Drysdale, to whom the case- 
had been committed, gave his decision. Said the ' ' Halifax Herald : ' ' 

"Yesterday, (Thursday, December 20, 1917) was the sixth day 
of the inquiry into the collision between the Belgian relief steamship 
Imo and the French munitions-laden steamer Mont Blanc. Of the 
Mont Blanc, all that remains are fragments scattered over miles of 
country, while the battered wreck of the Imo lies piled up on the 
Dartmouth shore, only a few yards out from low water mark. Court 
adjourned in the afternoon, and Mr. Justice Drysdale and his as- 
sociates, Captain Demers, wreck-commissioner of Canada, and Cap- 
tain Rose, K. U., representing the Admiralty, visited the wreck of 
the Imo and went over the course which had been pursued by the 
steamers preceding the collision. Mr. W. A. Henry, K. C, rep- 
resenting the Dominion Government, and the counsel for the owners 
of the Mont Blanc, accompanied the members of the court." 

In this legal inquiry into the cause of the explosion, testimony 
was given by the officers of the French steamer, all of whom had 
saved their lives by fleeing to the Dartmouth shore, and by the third 
officer and the steward of the Imo. Of the officers of the Imo, these 
were all that were left to give testimony, for in the explosion the 



captain and the pilot and the first and second officers of this ship had 
been killed. 

The decision of Justice Drysdale was, that the collision between 
the ships had been caused by violation of the rules of navigation by 
the pilot and the master of the Mont Blanc, and that the pilot, "be- 
cause of gross negligence," should forthwith be dismissed by the pi- 
lotage authorities and have his license cancelled ; and also, that crim- 
inal prosecution for manslaughter should be instituted against him. 

With regard to the captain of the ship, he suggested that a recom- 
mendation should be made to the French Government that the man's 
license be withdrawn, and he be further dealt with as the govern- 
ment should deem fitting. His decision also charged the harbour 
officials with criminal negligence in allowing ships laden with deadly 
explosives to enter the harbour without giving warning of the dan- 
gerous character of their cargoes, and without special precautions 
being taken to keep them free of the routes of other ships. 

Of the progress of the inquiry into the causes of the explosion to 
this point, a member of the Nova Scotia Bar says: 

"Immediately following the disaster, a marine inquiry was held 
by the Canadian Government before Mr. Justice Drysdale, who held 
the Mont Blanc solely to blame for the collision and severely criti- 
cised the pilot and captain, also Commander Wyatt, C X 0. Acting 
on these findings, criminal proceedings were instituted against these 
three men, but all were acquitted and exonerated. Meanwhile the 
lino's owners had brought action in the Admiralty Court against the 
Mont Blanc. The case was tried before the Admiralty Judge Drys- 
dale, the evidence taken on the marine inquiry before him being 
largely used, with the result that the court found the Mont Blanc 
solely to blame. 

"Appeal being taken to the Supreme Court of Canada, with a 
bench of five judges, two judges found against the Imo, two others 
against the Mont Blanc, the fifth divided the responsibility between 
the ships. The result was that both ships were held responsible. 
On appeal to the Privy 7 Council, that Tribunal held both ships to 
blame. Proceedings taken in Prance by the owners of the Mont 
Blanc are understood to have exonerated the Mont Blanc and her 
captain, holding the Imo solely to blame."* 

*Says the gentleman of the Bar to whom we are indebted for the above critical 
account of the legal proceedings taken for the purpose of fixing the responsibility for 
the disaster: "It has taken longer than I thought it would to get a history of the 
litigation. I can find no report other than inaccurate newspaper accounts of the 
proceedings, except the Appellate Court decisions, which are printed in the Supreme 
Court of Canada Reports and the English Law Reports." Letter to Major J. Plimsoll 
Edwards, President of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, written in August, 1920. 


A newspaper report in April, 1918, further says : 

''Mr. Justice Russell, of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court, dis- 
mised the application of the Crown (Mr. Cluney, K. C.) for an 
order for leave to prefer an indictment for criminal negligence and 
manslaughter against Pilot Mackay of the French ship, stating that 
'he could not without stultifying himself take any other course.' " 

Throughout the remainder of the grim winter which will always be 
referred to as the "winter of the explosion," the Halifax people who 
suffered from the fatal collision of the foreign ships and who sur- 
vived death, protected themselves from the elements as best they 
could. In some streets in the destroyed parts of the town, great 
temporary wooden buildings like barracks were erected, in which 
many families crowded together for shelter. When spring opened, 
plans that had been developing for rebuilding the ruined section 
were put in action, and even the most afflicted of the Halifax resi- 
dents began preparations to replace the homes they had tragically 
lost. Said a newspaper of the city in April, 1918, in what it adver- 
tised as a "Reconstruction Number:" 

"The ruins in the devastated area have been cleared away and 
thousands of workmen are engaged in building the new and greater 
Halifax. Today the greatest need of our citizens is Vision. The 
old Halifax has ceased to be, and in its place must arise a city far 
transcending that so rudely shattered on December 6th, 1917. But 
only a clarified Vision, concentration of effort, a resolute will to 
work, can possibly achieve this. Halifax has no cause to be ashamed 
of her history; and since the outbreak of the "World War she has 
gained unique distinction throughout the Empire by becoming an 
Imperial Port. The maintenance of her position, the enhancing of 
the prestige she has already won, should be the supreme concern of 
her loyal citizens. Dowered by the favouring grace of Providence, 
beautiful for situation, Halifax, the Atlantic Gateway to the fairest 
of England's Overseas Dominions, must and will arise more fair, 
more thriving, clad in strength and beauty, the new great city of 
our dreams. Concentration on the high ideal, cooperation of effort 
among our merchants and our people, the loyal pride of Nova 
Scotians throughout the Province, these are essential to the ful- 
fillment of our best desires. 'Rome was not built in a day' is the 
overworked proverb of the ancients, used to check lethargy and 
weakness; the Greater Halifax will never be rebuilt unless the task 
is vigorously grappled with today. Not merely commercial activity 



and structural beauty, but a city in that word's richest sense— a 
community of God-abiding, prosperous, happy, and progressive 
people— let it be our aim to realize this, and to its realization let 
every -will ajnong us be bent. 'The old order changeth, yielding 
place to new ! ' The new and greater Halifax is springing now to 


By E. C. Finley, Member Newport (R. I.) Historical, Society 

S|7^y7j ERALDRY in all its branches has intrigued the imagina- 
tion of mankind from time immemorial. The stage of 
development which it presents to the world to-day is 
comparatively recent, however. The custom of using a 
sign, distinctive and recognizable among men as appertaining to the 
descendants of one progenitor and members of one house, sprang 
into use thousands of years before need arose for the surname. 
Among the ancient Greeks, who assigned to Zeus the thunderbolt and 
the eagle, as emblematic of his supreme power and divinity, men 
adopted as the emblems of their houses less pretentious but equally 
eloquent badges. The eagle and the lion have always been the em- 
blems of royalty, and as such were used among the Hittites and the 
Egyptians. Traces of the use of a rude heraldry are found among 
the remains of prehistoric races, showing how early man strove to 
express his individuality by a sign which represented himself and 
his house wherever seen. Totemism, discovered among the most an- 
cient peoples, is another forerunner of true heraldry, and so far 
touches on the science of armory (as heraldry was originally called) 
that some students trace the white horse of Westphalia, the bull's 
head of the Mechlenburgers, and other ancient armories, to its in- 
fluence. With the development of a well-ordered mythology, all the 
gods and goddesses had their symbols. Greek sculpture and pottery 
display many well defined symbols constantly associated with 
heroes, mythical and historical, and with races. These are often 
borne on shields, on helmets and on standards. These divine em- 
blems were frequently adopted by those houses which claimed a semi- 
divine origin, and borne through generation and generation. The 
adoption of symbols for gods and men went far among the Assy- 
rians, Egyptians and Hittites. The use of a form of heraldry among 
the ancient Jews is illustrated by the following verse from Chapter 
II, Numbers : ' ' Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by 
his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house. . . ." 


^"^—^ ^ 2rv. ' 

With Mantling and Helmet. 




With Mantling, Helmet and Crest. 


Complete — With Mantling, Helmet, Crest, 


Complete — With Mantling, Helmet, Cross, 
Motto and Supporters. 



Rabbinical writers have supported the belief that the standards set 
up in the camps of the Israelites bore figures devised from the pro- 
phecy of Jacob, — the ravening wolf for Benjamin, the lion's whelp 
for Judah. In the East are found the ancient symbols of China and 
Japan — the five clawed dragon and the chrysanthemum badge of the 
Japanese emperor. On the American continent, long before the 
landing of the Spaniards in Mexico, Aztec chiefs bore shields and 
banners inscribed with devices showing in phonetic writing the 
name of their bearers ; and the eagle on the flag of Mexico may be 
easily traced to the eagle once carved over the palace of Montezuma. 
Despite the fact that its beginnings are clearly recognizable as far 
back as our knowledge of human life extends, heraldry as a science 
dates back no further than the eleventh century, when laws for its 
guidance began to be laid down, and various symbols to be recog- 
nized as hereditary. Its suddenness of development from that time 
is remarkable. The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa is thought to 
have been the first to interpose regulations in the field of heraldry, 
and is called by some the real father of the art. In England, and it 
is in English heraldry that we are particularly interested — though 
two heralds, Xorroy and Surrey, were appointed by Edward I., and 
Clarenceux by Edward IV. in 1611 — it was not until the reign of 
Henry V. that proclamation was made forbidding any one to assume 
armorial bearings without permission from the King or his heralds. 
Henry, a great patron of heraldry, instituted the office of Garter 
King of Arms, and his Pursuivant Blue Mantle. During his reign, 
heraldry became hereditary, armorial bearings descending from 
father to son, the eldest son wearing the shield as carried by his 
father. The younger sons were obliged to make use of some differ- 
ence, or mark of cadency. Simplicity is the predominating feature 
of these early coats-of-arms. With time, however, owing to the prac- 
tice of the younger branches of a family accumulating charges, al- 
tering outlines, changing colors and assuming borders, heraldry be- 
came complicated, and the necessity of instituting some means for 
its stringent regulation became apparent. The power of conferring 
arms and the right to bear them, originally invested in the king, was 
delegated by him to the King of Arms. The title of Clarenceux was 
conferred on a Herald in the train of the Duke of Clarenceux, son 
of Edward III. Edward IV. created that officer a King of Arms, 
with jurisdiction over the south, east and western parts of the king- 



dom. Beside these officers, there were inferior ones denominated 
Heralds and Pursuivants. The entire body incorporated by the 
charter of Richard III. constitutes the College of Arms. 

Arms were no sooner esteemed as incontrovertible evidence of 
honor and blood than they were eagerly sought after. Application 
to the Crown for grants of arms became so constant that the King 
empowered Clarenceux and Norroy actually to confer the right to 
bear arms within their jurisdictions, under the title of Earls Mar- 
shal. The first armorial bearings were assumed without restraint, 
largely from military ensigns by the old British, Saxon and Norman 
houses, who adopted their standards first as a military distinction, 
and retained them as an honorable distinction. From these ancient 
noble houses sprang the gentry of England, who, being attached by 
blood or allegiance, assumed or were granted arms resembling those 
of their chiefs. Not all of the ancient gentry or lesser nobility re- 
ceived their arms in this manner, however, for they were frequently 
assigned by the Crown to such gentlemen of blood as had distin- 
guished themselves on the field of battle, or in some noteworthy deed 
of valor. With the threatened abuse of the privilege of bearing arms, 
lax laws came into force. So great was the abuse, however, that 
Henry V. was compelled to limit the bearing of arms to those who 
held them by actual grant, or whose ancestors could be proved to 
have borne them before the battle of Agincourt — " exceptis Mis qui 
nobiscum apud helium de Agincourt anna portabant." Despite the 
royal ordinance, a multiplicity of irregularities and disorders were 
found to have crept into matters pertaining to descent and arms. To 
overcome this, commissions were issued under the Great Seal to the 
two Provincial Kings of Arms, authorizing each to visit the whole of 
his province as often as necessary (about once every thirty years) 
"to convene before him all those who bore or assumed to bear arms, 
and were styled esquires and gentlemen ; and to cause them to pro- 
duce and show by what authority and right they challenged and 
claimed the use of arms." In pursuance of this royal commission, 
began the circuit of the Kings of Arms, called Visitations, about the 
sixteenth century, which were continued periodically until the close 
of the seventeenth. The principal hereditary arms of England are 
borne under the authority of these records of Heralds' Visitations, 
as they were called. Beside the College of Arms in England there 
is a similar institution for Scotland — The Lion Office, at the head of 



which is the Lord Lion King of Arms. In Ireland the principal Her- 
ald is styled the Ulster King of Arms. 

Opinion differs widely as to the earliest authentic date which can 
be set for the use of heraldic bearings as we now know them.' We 
have scattered instances of the use of arms from the eleventh cen- 
tury. It is known that armorial bearings were used by neither the 
Normans nor Saxons at the battle of Hastings. William the Con- 
queror, as we know, had to bare his head before he could persuade 
his men that he still lived. This fact aids in fixing the date when the 
shield, embossed with the arms of its bearer, became a distinctive 
and personal adjunct to his panoply of war. The use of arms on seals 
antedates their use on shields. Richard I. is the first English sover- 
eign who appears on his Great Seal with arms on his shield (11S9). 
On his seal of 11G4, Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, bears a 
shield charged with a lion. Although in 1189 Richard bore arms of 
a lion rampant, another seal nine years later shows him with the 
familiar bearings which have been used as the arms of England by 
each of his successors. From the beginning of the 13th century, 
arms upon shields increased in number. Soon most of the great 
houses of the West displayed them with pride. The value of shield 
and banner on the field of battle as a means of distinction in the 
press of an engagement was quickly recognized. The knight arrayed 
for battle, carrying his armorial bearings on his shield, the charge 
of his shield displayed on his surcoat, his "coat-of-arms" on his 
banner and on the trapping of his horse, even on the peaks of his 
saddle, was recognized more easily by friend and foe than if his 
face, barred beyond the visored helmet, had been exposed to view. 
Men soon learned that the gold and blue checkers meant Warrenne, 
and that gold and red vair was for Ferrers. It is erroneous to as- 
sume, however, that the custom of bearing arms on the battlefield 
was the sole cause of the wide use of arms in England. The growth 
of the custom of sealing deeds, charters and every conceivable legal 
document had at least as much influence on the development of her- 
aldry as any military need. With the rise of this custom, women, 
clerks (clerics), citizens and men of peace, colleges and corporations, 
shared with the soldier the need for a distinctive mark. Few men 
could write, outside the priestly class and trained clerks and scriv- 
eners, most of whom were churchmen. Hence the need for an un- 
mistakable sign. The prestige attaching to the right to bear arms 



naturally appealed to high and low. Every effort was made to per- 
petuate them. Arms in stone, wood and brass decorated the tombs 
of the dead and the houses of the living; they were embroidered in 
the silks and tapestries of great houses, on the vestments of royalty 
and priests, painted on the sails of ships, worked in gold and silver 
and enamel. From a military necessity arms had become the sine 
qua non of gentility, and there was scarcely any walk of life which 
did not display the glory and splendor of heraldic blazonry on every 
occasion and under any suitable pretext. Even among warriors, the 
full splendor of armory played a greater part in the tournament 
than on the field of battle. 

At this point it will not be too great a digression if we devote a 
short space to the tournament, which is so closely allied to the sub- 
ject of heraldry. This gorgeous spectacle of the days of chivalry has 
figured in romance and history for centuries. The appeal of the com- 
bat at arms fought by knights in full array, and gazed upon by kings, 
where beauty sat enthroned and watched the clash of iron and steel, 
has never been neglected in English literature. Scott calculated well 
when he described the Tournament in "Ivanhoe," the hold which 
his words will take on generations to come. Despite the fact that 
tournaments were but "military exercises carried out not in the 
spirit of hostility," many a fight was fought to the death for a lady's 
favor, many a lifelong enmity settled, and many lives lost accident- 
ally in these medieval games of war. The most gorgeous of which 
we have record is that of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, held in the 
valley between Guisnes and Ardres by the Kings of England and 
France, Henry VIII. and Francis I. A roll of the arms of those tak- 
ing part in one of the tournaments of the Field of the Cloth of Gold 
is preserved, showing the arms of Henry and Francis, arms of con- 
testants, and two columns of "cheques" marked with the names 
and scoring points of the jousters. 

To treat the subject exhaustively would require a lifetime of con- 
centrated effort, and the writer has attempted no more than to give 
an account of the origin of the science of heraldry. In the f ollowing 
description of the technical devices of heraldry, he essays only a 
brief synopsis of the different classes of heraldic devices, with their 
significance : 

The Escutcheon or Shield of the Middle Ages was the first article 
of the trappings of a knight or soldier to be inscribed with his arms ; 



it was circular and convex in shape, with a boss in the center, the 
body generally of wood and the rim of metal. This form was 
that generally borne by the foot soldier; with the mounted knight 
the triangular or lozenge form became the favorite, and it is this 
form the shield retains in heraldry, although artists have allowed 
themselves much liberty in the matter of outlining it. The accessor- 
ies of arms are composed of the Crest ; Supporters ; Helmet ; Mant- 
ling; Wreath, Chapeau, or Coronet; and Motto; not all of which 
are possessed by armigerous families. The shield, the only indis- 
pensable part of a coat-of-arms, is divided into three principal con- 
stituents—the field (or ground), the tinctures (metals, colors and 
furs), and the charges. 

The Field is the ground of the shield or banner, and for facility 
in description has been divided into several parts. To go into the 
highly technical side of this subject, which requires a vocabulary of 
its own, would not interest the amateur reader. A few of the sa- 
lient features are not amiss, however. The surface of the shield 
may be divided by a horizontal, perpendicular or diagonal line, or 
by a combination of these lines, which may be straight or variously 
shaped in curves, points, etc. Eleven varieties of lines, other than 
straight lines, are used in modern heraldry, and are named as en- 
grailed, embattled, indented, invected, wavy or undy, nebuly, dan- 
cetty, raguly, potente, dovetailed and urdy. 

The Tinctures comprise two metals, nine colors, (five of which are 
in general use), and three furs, with their variations. The terms 
employed to describe them in formal heraldic languages are in the 
Old French — or, gold; argent, silver; azure, blue; gules, red; 
vert, green; sable, black; purpure, purple; sanguine, a deep-blood- 
red; tennee, orange; carnation, flesh color; bleue celeste, sky blue; 
v. these last four are seldom used. 

The Furs are ermine, ermines, erminois, pean, vair, counter-vair, 
potent counter potent. The furs are represented by distinctively 
shaped spots or charges distributed over the shield. It is a strict 
general rule that metal must not be placed on metal, nor color on 

Ordinary Charges, or Ordinaries. — The writers upon armory 
have given the name of Ordinaries to certain conventional figures 
commonly charged upon shields. They are eight in number, accord- 
ing to Burke, and each has a certain number of diminutives. In the 



remotest days these had already assumed symbolic forms and mean- 
ings, and nearly every one has a special meaning or legend attached 
to it, often more than one, varying with the imaginative faculties of 
the early heralds. Oswald Barron, F. S. A., in his article on Her- 
aldry in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," attaches little import- 
ance to the various symbolic legends of the ordinaries, stating with 
excellent logic that they were chosen because their distinctive out- 
lines made them easily recognized. The principal ordinaries are: 

The Chief — The whole upper part of the shield cut off horizont- 
ally by any of the partition lines used in heraldry; should comprise 
one-third of the escutcheon. 

The Pale, formed by two lines drawn perpendicularly from top to 
bottom of the shield and comprising one-third. 

The Bend is formed by two lines drawn diagonally from the 
dexter chief to the sinister base. It is said by some authorities 
to represent the shoulder belt or scarf of the knight, or soldier. 

The Bend Sinister is identical with the above, in reversed posi- 
tion, from sinister chief to dexter base ; used to denote illegitimacy. 

The Fesse, formed by two horizontal lines drawn across the field ; 
emblematic of the military girdle worn around the body over the 
armor. It comprises the center third part of the shield. 

The Bar is a diminutive of the fesse, one-fifth the width where 
the latter is one-third. 

The Cross is composed of four lines, two parallel lines perpen- 
dicular and two transverse, not drawn through, but meeting by 
couples near the fesse point. 

, The Saltire (the Cross of St. Andrew) composed of bend and 
bend sinister, united or blending where they cross. 

The Chevron, supposed by some writers to have been adapted 
from the bow of a war saddle, which rose high in front, by others 
from the rafters of the parental roof, is formed by two parallel 
lines drawn from the dexter base, meeting pyramidically two par- 
allel lines drawn from the sinister base, about the fesse point. These 
comprise the principal ordinaries. 

The Subordinaries are the border, orle, canton, inescutcheon, 
quarter, chequy, billets, paile, gyron, pile, flaunch, lozenge, mascle, 
fusil, roundle, annulet, lozengy, fret, gutte. 

We come next to the Charges, the devices incorporated in the 
shield. From the first, the cross was a common bearing on Eng- 
lish shields, "Silver a cross gules" being early given to St. George, 
patron of knights and of England, for his arms. Under the red 
cross of St. George the English were wont to fight. Armorial cross- 



es took many shapes, even under the ancient heralds. The sweep- 
ing statement that all families who bear crosses in their arms 
descend from ancestors who fought in the Crusades, is erroneous. 
As the accepted symbol of Christianity and an evidence of religious 
faith, it was naturally highly esteemed as a charge and universally 
adopted. The crescent is another charge which has to answer for 
many idle tales concerning the crusading ancestors of families who 
bear it. 

Heraldic charges extend over a wide field, and are taken from prac- 
tically every department of natural history, as well as from historic 
events, implements of war, trade, agriculture, etc. In order to deal 
more concisely with the various types of charges, the writer has at- 
tempted a classification. 

Birds and Beasts. — Animal charges form one of the largest classes 
of heraldic devices. In the early days when each knight could dec- 
orate his shield with the emblems which best suited his fancy, many 
chose as the principal charges of their escutcheons some of those 
animals most renowned for bravery. The book of natural history 
as studied in the Middle Ages lay open at the lion, to which royal 
beast all the noble virtues were accredited. The oldest armorial 
bearing yet discovered of a sovereign prince bears the rampant 
lion of Flanders. By custom the royal beast is always rampant, 
i. e., in profile, touching the ground with but one foot, and clawing 
the air with the other in noble rage. This rampant lion and the lion 
passant (prowling or walking) are the only two commonly encount- 
ered in English heraldry, although there are thirteen other rare 
postures of the beast — rampant-guardant, rampant-reguardant, pas- 
sant-guardant, passant-reguardant, statant, saliant, sejant, sejant- 
affrontee, couchant, dormant, coward, rampant-combatant, rampant- 
passant, rampant-adosse. Dismembered lions and parts of lions 
are also used as charges. Among the famous lions of chivalry are 
the red lion rampant of Scotland, the silver lions passant of the 
native Princes of North and South Wales, and the black lion ram- 
pant of the Griffiths, Princes of Cardigan. Going abroad, we find 
the valiant winged lion of Venice, which is of course the Biblical 
lion of St. Mark. The lion's companion is the leopard, which differs 
from the king of beasts only as regards the face. Medieval armor- 
ists, attempting to construct the leopard from the description of 
those few travellers who had claimed to have seen one, hit upon the 



happy device of painting him like his sire, the lion, in all points. 
But as the lion looks forward, the leopard should look sidelong. 
Despite the fact that many modern armorists recognize no distinc- 
tion between the lion and the leopard, calling the latter a lion pas- 
sant guardant, the leopard had a well recognized place in English 
heraldry. The English King's beasts were leopards in blazon, 
ballad and chronicle. Henry V's Herald, named from his master's 
coat, was Leopard Herald. Napoleon's gazettes never fail to speak 
of the English leopards. The knight who saw the king's banner 
flying at Falkirk or Crecy records that it bore "Gules with three 
leopards of gold." Yet the modern armorist in many cases blazons 
the English leopards as lions passant guardant. The leopard's 
face is a common charge, and can always be distinguished from the 
lion's face, because the latter never shows more than the profile. 
Heraldic tigers have the faces of lions, the heads of wolves, and are 
tufted on head and body, and occasionally striped. The lynx and 
catamount, or wild cat, are much alike. With the exception of the 
lion and leopard, other beasts play but small part in English 
heraldry, although we have the wolf, fox, etc. Other animals on 
shields appear mostly to play upon the names of their bearers. Thus 
Swinburne had the heads of swine; Bacon has bacon pigs; Bar- 
nard, a rampant bear; Harewell, hares' heads; Oxwyck, fox heads; 
calves stand for Veel and Calverly; talbots for Talbot; lambs for 
Lambton, and so on indefinitely. The wild boar is a fairly usual 
charge, indicating bravery, and adopted by warriors. The horse 
is an exceedingly ancient symbol of warfare and strength, and was 
introduced into England by the Saxons. Dogs, chiefly represented 
by the talbot and greyhound, are used as heraldic charges. The 
stag, wild deer, hart, fawn, buck and roe, and reindeer and ante- 
lope, also appear. 

Occupying a place of equal importance among birds, as that of 
the lion among heraldic beasts, is the eagle. The King of Birds 
is a charge next in importance armorially to the King of Beasts. 
Eagles have a long ancestry as symbols of divine power, and are 
naturally the distinguishing marks of kings and kingly families. 
The eagle for this reason is in no wise a common charge. The 
martlet as a bird charge is more frequently encountered, and is 
never found as a sole charge on a shield. The falcon or hawk, 
assumed as a charge when hawking was one of the chief pastimes 



of the nobility, is borne with closed wings, so as not to be mistaken 
for the martlet, Other birds are the heron, parrot, crane, swan, 
daw, corbie, owl, rook, dove, peacock, magpie, pelican, and cock, 
all of which in the majority of instances play upon the names of 
those on whose shields they appear. After the eagle, the birds 
most common are the pelican, peacock and cock. The pelican is in 
reality a religious emblem, though found in secular arms. It is 
represented in the nest, feeding the young with blood flowing from 
a self-inflicted wound in the breast. In this position, the usual 
one, she is said to be in her piety. The symbolism is easily seen. 
The crane is regarded as a symbol of vigilance. Doves, originally 
the birds of Aphrodite, took men's souls to heaven, hence the asso- 
ciation with the Holy Spirit ; in heraldry they are mostly indicative 
of love and religious ardor. The cock, owing to its pugnacity has 
always been regarded as a bird of battle, and among the ancients 
in war time a white cock with a red comb was sacrificed to Mars. 
In heraldry it appears under its dual symbolism of soldierly courage 
and religious inspirations. It has always been associated with the 
religious cult of the Gaul; Caesar tells us that they fought under a 
cock standard. The most famous instance of the heraldic cock to- 
day is the "Coq Gaulois," the emblem borne on the standards of the 
French, the descendants of the Gauls. 

Fish, Reptiles, Insects. — This class of charges is borne largely to 
call to mind their bearers' names. Unless otherwise mentioned, 
fish are emblazoned as rising upward to the surface of the water. 
The dolphin is known by its bowed back, old artists making it a gro- 
tesquely decorative figure. It was the insignia of the heirs to the 
throne of France, to the day of the unhappy son of Louis XVI. 
and Marie Antoinette. The reason of the adoption of the dolphin 
by the Dauphins of France has never been discovered. The whale, 
which appears on the arms of Whalley Abbey, is an unusual charge. 
Shellfish, exemplified mostly by scallops, appear. Reptiles and in- 
sects are rare, the bee being the most common of the latter. 

Fabulous Creatures. — Many fabulous creatures, relics of early 
barbaric cults and of mythology which forced their way into the 
folk lore and literature of the Middle Ages, appear in English 
heraldry. The oldest of these monsters is the dragon, which after 
the Conquest came well to the fore in heraldry. Eichard I. had a 
dragon standard in the Crusades; Henry III. a golden dragon at 



Westminster; Edward I. marched into Wales under a golden 
dragon ; and Edward III. had it at Crecy. Griffons, depicted with 
the hinder part of a lion, have the forequarters of eagles. The long 
tuft of hair under the beak and the pointed ears are the distinguish- 
ing marks from the eagle when the head alone appears. The wyv- 
ern, an ancient charge, had the general outlines of the dragon, -"with 
but two legs. A cockatrice is a wyvern with cock's head. The harpy 
is a charge which may be traced through classical art to Eastern 
mythology, as may also the unicorn, the phoenix, pegasus, centaur, 
mermaid, merman, triton, sea horse, and sea lion. \ 

Human Charges. — Man appeared rather late in English heraldry, 
and has never occupied an important place among the charges. Fig- 
ures generally of a religious nature were occasionally represented 
on standards and banners, and subsequently incorporated in ar- 
morial bearings. Old crests and supporters have falchion men, 
coal-miners, monks, blackamoors, saracens, wild men, soldiers. The 
Stanleys, as Kings of Man, quartered the famous three armed legs, 
whirling mill-sail fashion. Warriors appear in many coats. Even 
skeletons are not unknown. Human eyes, hearts, hands, arms and 
legs are encountered. The most famous of the heraldic hearts is 
that of the Douglases of Scotland. 

Trees, Leaves and Flowers. — Nature offered a fertile field for the 
early armorist. Sir Stephen Cheyndut, a thirteenth century knight, 
bore an oak tree, the cheyne (French for oak) of the first syllable 
of his name. Likewise, three apples were borne by Applegarth, 
temp. Edward III. Corn, rye, barley, wheat, appear with fre- 
quency on shields. Trefoils, leaves with three pear-shaped lobes, 
are seldom seen before the 15th century. Later we find quatre- 
foils, cinqfoils and sixfoils. Rare charges are the broom — planta 
genesta, the celebrated badge of the Plantagenet kings and the 
source of the name of their house, — heather, mistletoe, and ivy. The 
thistle, the badge of the royal house of Scotland, was bestowed in 
honor by Scottish rulers. Numerous flowers appear in English and 
continental coat-armor. Flowers and leaves are borne in the form 
of wreaths as charges or as decoration for other charges. Students 
of the subject have long contended over the origin of the fleur-de- 
lys, which is of sufficient importance in heraldry to be ranked as 
one of the ordinaries, as it is by some writers. Its very great an- 
tiquity is undeniable. The French themselves claim that they owe 



their lilies to Clovis, according to an old legend that they were 
a gift direct from heaven to the first Christian king of France, a 
charmingly romantic version, hut hardly one to satisfy the student 
or scientist of the present day. We can trace accurately a conven- 
tionalized fleur-de-lys among the religious symbols of the ancient 
Egyptians, Hindoos, Greeks, Romans and Etruscans. Some claim 
it to be a decorative or glorified lance head. Others claim it is one 
of the tri-parted symbols of which instances are found among the 
earliest religious insignia extant. Botanists look upon it as an ar- 
bitrary form of the iris, supposed to have been used as X primitive 
sceptre for early chieftains. Still others think that it is the river- 
side flag, the yellow flowers of which were plucked by the victorious 
soldiers of Clovis after the battle of Tolbiac to adorn their arms, 
and so adopted as a royal badge. Whatever its origin, it was the 
earliest badge of the French kings, and appears in many forms. 
Brought from France into England, it was well established as an 
armorial charge as early as the first half of the eleventh century, 
and has continued to hold a place of undisputed importance. 

As France has her Lily, Scotland her Thistle, England has her 
Rose. The rose, like the lily, has its counterpart in ancient civiliza- 
tion and mythologies. It has been treated in heraldry both conven- 
tionally and realistically with equally beautiful effect. The early 
heraldic rose is modelled after the wild type, and "forms a perfect 
symbol of beauty and gracefulness." The earliest heraldic roses 
consisted of live petals. In later examples we have two or more 
rows of petals added. As a badge and a charge, it reached its most 
luxuriant development under the Tudors. The Tudor Rose, like the 
fleur-de-lys, has great decorative value, and is found in profusion 
in the architecture and wood carving, and in practically every 
branch of art cultivated in the Tudor period. Roses were widely 
used as the badges of noble families, as well as charges upon their 
escutcheons. The War of the Roses was fought under the Red 
and White Roses of the Houses of York and Lancaster. 

Miscellaneous Charges. — Other charges are for the greater part 
used to play upon the bearers' name. Weapons and the like are 
rare, though occasionally encountered as charges; we find swords, 
helmets, bent bows, arrows, birding bolts, lances and battle-axes. 
We have also slings, catapults, cannon-balls, gauntlets, annulets, 
buckles. Of the developed structural parts of the shield, escar- 



buncles, fers-de-moline and staples, are of chief importance. Anoth- 
er group of charges is represented by buildings, castles, churches 
and bridges. Keys are encountered, chiefly with the significance of 
defence, although occasionally with religious meaning. Although 
England has been for centuries a seafaring nation, ships appear 
very infrequently in English heraldry, and are chiefly employed by 
the seaboard towns in their municipal coats-of-arms. The ward- 
robe furnishes many minor charges, of which the most important 
is the sleeve or maunch. Mirrors, books, baskets, musical instru- 
ments, agricultural and trade implements appear, usually with pun- 
ning significance, and are rare in the coat armour of private indi- 

Passing from the Shield or Escutcheon proper, the most import- 
ant accessory of the arms is the Crest. Like the arms it has its 
pre-heraldic history in the crests of the Greek helmets, the 
wings, the wild boars' and bulls' heads of Viking headpieces. The 
helmet was a necessary part of the armor of the medieval knight, 
but the custom of surmounting it with a crest came slowly 
into use in England. Scattered instances occur before the four- 
teenth century, but it is not until after that date that the crest 
springs into widespread use. In 119S, Richard Coeur de Lion ap- 
pears on his seal in a barrel-helm with a leopard on the semi-cir- 
cular comb-ridge. Of the long roll of earls and barons sealing the 
famous letter to the Pope in 1301, only five show true crests on their 
seals. With the development of the tournament, the crest offered a 
new field for heraldic display, and it was rapidly incorporated into 
the coats armour of knights, to remain a fixed accessory of the 
shield to the present day. The range of crests is wide, whole or half 
figures, the heads and necks of heraldic beasts and birds, feathers, 
plumes, weapons of war, trees, flowers, being the most commonly 
used. By strict usage, no crest is allowed to a woman or to members 
of the clergy. Interposed between the crest and the helmet or 
the shield proper is the torse, or wreath, representing the silken or 
linen scarf bound about the helmet. The crest rests either on the 
wreath or on coronets, crowns or hats of estate, according to the 
rank of the bearer. With the wreath may be considered the mantle, 
which in its earliest form is seen as two strips of silk attached to 
the top of the helmet below the crest, and streaming like pennants 
as the rider bent his head and charged. The general opinion among 



the antiquarians is that the mantle originated among the crnsaders 
as a protection for the steel helmet against the rays of the Eastern 
sun. In modern heraldry the mantle takes the principal color of the 
shield, lined with the principal metal. 

Supporters, the least frequently encountered accessory of the 
shield, arc figures placed on each side of the shield, appearing, as 
the term implies, to support it. These (in a lesser degree the crest 
also), arc often personal rather than hereditary, and may be changed 
from generation to generation. The kings of France used angels 
as supporters of the shield of the fleur-de-lys from the fifteenth 
century. Sovereigns of England from Henry IV, to Elizabeth 
changed about between supporters of harts, leopards, antelopes, 
bulls, greyhounds, boars and dragons. James I. at his accession to 
the English throne adopted the lion and the unicorn, which have 
since been the royal supporters. In England the right to bear sup- 
porters is confined to Peers of the Realm, Knights of the Garter 
and Bath, and to those persons who have obtained them by royal 
grant. A few ancient unennobled English families retain them by 
right of hereditary prescription. 

The Motto, the last adjunct of the complete coat-of-arms, is borne 
on a scroll beneath the shield, and may be retained or relinquished 
at will. Few have any antiquity. Some, however, like the "Esper- 
ance" of the Percys, were the war-cries of remote ancestors. 

Coronets, crowns or caps of estate, used as accessories to the 
escutcheon, have already been mentioned. They are of ancient 
origin. The crown or coronet in some form or another has been 
a mark of rank from time immemorial. When Edward III. made 
dukes of his sons, gold circlets w r ere set upon their heads in token of 
their new dignity. In subsequent reigns the honor was extended 
to earls, and a few days before the coronation of Charles II. the 
privilege was extended to the lowest rank of the peerage. The 
caps of velvet lined with miniver, worn with the peer's coronet, are 
the ancient caps of honor, akin to the "cap of maintenance" worn 
by English sovereigns on their coronation days when walking to 
the Abbey Church, and borne before them on occasions of state. 
The ancient circle of the peers was enriched according to the indi- 
vidual taste of the bearer. The form of the modern English coronet 
is strictly regulated, however, and varies for each rank of the 



The Helmet likewise shows the rank of the bearer. The most an- 
cient form is the simplest, composed of iron, and of a shape fitted 
to the head, Hat upon the top, with an aperture for the light. This is 
styled the Norman helmet, and appears on very old seals attached 
to the gorget, a separate piece of armor which covered the neck. 
In the twelfth century a change was made to mark the estate of the 
individual. The helmet of Kings and Princes of the Royal Blood 
is full faced, of gold, with the beauvoir divided by six projecting 
bars, and lined with crimson. The helmet of the nobility, placed on 
the shield inclined to a profile, is of steel with fire bars of gold. 
The helmet of knights and baronets is the full faced steel helmet, 
with the visor thrown back and without bars. That of esquires is 
always depicted in profile, is of steel, and bears the visor closed. 

In this article the writer has attempted nothing more than to 
present the salient features of an interesting science. The interest 
which Americans have manifested in recent years for genealogy and 
heraldrv is its raison d'etre. 



Erected to the Memory of Four Cushing Brothers. 

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Erected to the Memory of Four Gushing Brothers. 

Family of Heroes 

•^WfQ^i "^ ^-^^ beautiful Forest Hill Cemetery at Fredonia, 
X® ;0L Chautauqua county, New York, stands a monument 


erected in memory of four heroic brothers who faith- 
fully served their country in its hour of need, two of 
them dying on the field of battle, and two from the effects of their 
service. They were Major Milton Buckingham Gushing, Lieutenant 
Howard B. Cushing, Colonel Alonzo H. Cushing, and Commander 
William Barker Cushing. They were grandsons of Judge Zattu 
Cushing, a native of Massachusetts, who removed to the State of 
New York, aided in the settlement and organization of the county 
of Chautauqua, and became one of its leading citizens. At the first 
term of the court of that county held after his death, the Bar pro- 
vided that his portrait should be hung over the judges' bench in the 
court house. 

Dr. Milton Buckingham Cushing, son of Judge Zattu Cushing, 
was a physician and a merchant, an energetic, clearsighted, perse- 
vering man, of lofty character and vigorous intellect, influential 
and public-spirited. He was the father of the four Cushing broth- 
ers whose careers are hereinafter traced. Their mother was his 
second wife, a daughter of Elisha Smith, Member of Congress, of 
Salem, Massachusetts, a lineal descendant of John Alden of May- 
flower fame, and nearly related to the John Adams, Hancock, Mad- 
ison and Phillips families. She was a woman of refinement and cul- 
ture, and mentally and morally of great strength. When she was 
widowed, her eldest child was but ten years old. Her means were 
limited, and to maintain her home and provide for those dependent 
upon her, she opened a school in her own home in Fredonia, New 
York. She survived all her children but one — a daughter, Mrs. E. 
H. Bouton, in whose home at St. Joseph, Missouri, she died, March 
26, 1891. 

The eldest son of Dr. Milton Buckingham Cushing, and his name- 
sake, was born in Columbus, Ohio, April 20, 1837, and died in 
Dunkirk, New York, January 1, 1886. He served with the army 
during the War of 1861-65, as pavmaster, with the rank of major. 



The second son, Howard B. Cushing, was born in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, August 22, 1838. He also performed military service, rising 
to the rank of first lieutenant in the Third U. S. Cavalry Regiment. 
He was engaged with that command during the Indian troubles in 
Arizona, and was killed by Cachise, the noted Apache chief, May 5, 
1861. A monument to his memory was erected by the citizens in 
Tucson, Arizona. 

The other two sons of Dr. Milton Buckingham Cushing are writ- 
ten of as follows by Mr. John P. Downs, in a work now in press, 
"History of Chautauqua County, New York." (The American 
Historical Society, Inc.). 

Colonel Alonzo Hereford Cushing was born January 19, 1811, and 
was killed at the battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. His birthplace 
was Delafield, Wis. He was appointed to the Military Academy at 
W T est Point through Hon. F. S. Edwards, Member of Congress from 
the Thirty-first District of New York. He was graduated January 
24, 1861, as second lieutenant, and commissioned first lieutenant, 
Fourth Artillery, June 21, 1861, breveted captain December 13, 1863, 
for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of Fredericksburg. 
He was made major May 2, 1863, for like service at the battle of 
Chancellorsville, and promoted to lieutenant-colonel July 1, 1863. 
After graduating he was first of his class ordered into the field, and 
was assigned to the duty of instructing volunteer regiments pre- 
paratory to the move on Manassas, in which movement he com- 
manded a section of a regular battery. He was chief of ordnance 
on General Sumner's staff, with the rank of captain, participating 
in every battle of the Peninsular campaign. For a time he was 
transferred to the Topographic Corps. His favorite arm of ser- 
vice was the artillery, to which he was returned at his own request, 
and assigned to the command of Battery A of the Fourth Regiment. 
His battery was under General Hancock in the Second Corps in the 
campaign into Pennsylvania; and at Gettysburg, in the face of that 
last wild charge of Pickett's division, he was with Battery A at Cem- 
etery Ridge, a crucial point on the battlefield, with nothing to mask 
his position, men, guns and horses standing out in bold relief against 
the sky. After all his men had been shot down and every gun of 
his battery dismounted but one, he stood among his dead and dying 
men, himself mortally wounded, and with the foe not thirty feet 
away, pulled the lanyard and fired his last gun upon the charging 
columns of the enemy, saying to an officer who was riding up with 
reinforcements: "We will give them one more shot, General 
Webb," and he fell back dead, his work of defense accomplished, the 
tide of battle there turning toward victory for the Union army. 



Commander William Barker dishing was born in Wisconsin, No- 
vember -i, 1S42, youngest son of Milton B. and Mary (Smith) Gush- 
ing. He received his early education at Fredonia, New York, and 
in 1857 was appointed to the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, 
but resigned March 23, 1861. In May of the same year, the war 
being now on, he volunteered and was appointed master's mate on 
the U. S. Ship Minnesota, and on the day of her arrival at Hampton 
Roads captured the Delaware Farmer, a tobacco schooner, the first 
prize of the war. He was attached to the North Atlantic Blockad- 
ing Squadron, served part of the time on the South Atlantic coast, 
and repeatedly distinguished himself by acts of bravery. 

He was commissioned lieutenant July 16, 1862, and in November 
of the same year be was ordered to Jacksonville, Florida, to destroy 
the New Juliet salt works. He captured a mail, took prizes, and 
shelled a Confederate camp, but was unable to cross the bar to 
Jacksonville. He then served on the Blackwater and in the sounds 
of North Carolina, where he distinguished himself upon several oc- 
casions. During 1863 he added to his reputation for daring bravery 
and good judgment by an expedition up the Cape Fear and Little 
rivers, and his operations on the Nansemond. It is not possible to 
give in detail all of his brilliant exploits, distinguished services 
and hair-breadth escapes. His most daring feat, and which made 
world-wide his then already splendid reputation, was the destruc- 
tion of the Confederate iron-clad ram Albemarle on the night 
of October 27, 1864. 

The Albemarle had successfully encountered a strong fleet of 
Union gunboats and fought for several hours without sustaining 
material damage. There was nothing able to cope with her in the 
Sounds, and grave apprehensions were entertained of the Union 
iron-clads being able to prevent her from sweeping everything be- 
fore and shelling the principal Northern seaport cities. Cushing 
volunteered to destroy her and banish the nightmare of terror which 
her presence cast upon the Union fleets. With a steam launch and a 
volunteer crew who fully realized the importance and danger of the 
mission upon which they were going, he ascended the Roanoke 
river, towing an armed cutter. The river was lined with Con- 
federate pickets, but Cushing 's phenomenal good luck did not desert 
him, and he was within a few yards of the Albemarle before he was 
discovered. Casting off the boat he had in tow, with orders to at- 
tack a picket post nearby, he drove the launch straight at the huge 
bulk of the iron-clad, whose crew rushed to quarters and opened a 
heavy fire. The launch replied effectively with her howitzer, until 
Cushing reached the raft of heavy logs which had been built around 
the ram. Over this the launch was driven, and by the time she re- 
ceived her death wound from the Albemarle's guns, Cushing had 
swung the torpedo boom under the great ship's overhang and ex- 



ploded the charge. A large hole was blown in the iron-clad 's side, 
and she sank at her moorings. Cushing left his sinking boat and 
swam down stream a half mile, where he reached the river hank 
thoroughly exhausted. When he recovered strength, he plunged 
into a dense swamp, and after hours of tedious wading came out on 
the shore of a creek where he found a Union picket boat. He and 
only one other of his companions escaped. For the sinking of the 
Albemarle he received the thanks of Congress, and was shortly af- 
terwards elevated to the rank of lieutenant-commander, his commis- 
sion dated October 27, 1864. 

At Fort Fisher he buoyed out the channel in a small skiff, and 
completed his work in six hours. In the final assault he led a force 
of sailors and marines from the Monticello against the sea front of 
the fort, and amid an unceasing fire at short range which cut down 
his men in windrows, he crossed one hundred rods of sand, and gave 
such efficient support to the land forces that before midnight the 
fort was surrendered. 

During the war he received five commendatory letters from the 
Secretary of the Navy, and at the close of the struggle was appointed 
to the command of the Lancaster in the Pacific squadron. In 1868 
he was placed in command of the Ulan Dice, and for four years was 
attached to the Atlantic Squadron. On the return of the Maumee 
to the United States, Lieutenant-Commander Cushing was advanced 
to the rank of commander, to date from January 1, 1S72, he being at 
that time the youngest officer of that rank in the navy. He was 
allowed leave of absence, but his health, which had been impaired 
by over-exertion, failed completely, and he died of brain fever in 
Washington, D. C, December 17, 1874. 

As, during the Civil War, Cushing was noted for finding oppor- 
tunities for upholding the honor of the navy and the flag, so in times 
of peace his intense patriotism kept him ever alert to enhance the 
glory of his beloved country. A notable instance occurred in Novem- 
ber, "lS73. 

Cushing was in command of the U. S. S. Wyoming at Aspinwall, 
when an urgent telegram was received from the United States Con- 
sul at Kingston, Jamaica, telling of the need of a warship, and 
describing the capture on the high seas of the steamer Virginius, 
and the shooting as pirates of her captain and part of her crew at 
Santiago de Cuba by order of the Spanish Governor-General Bur- 
riel, and that more American lives were in peril. 

Believing it his duty to lose no time, Cushing sailed at once, with- 
out waiting for orders, and arrived at Santiago, November 15. The 
British frigate Xiobe was in the harbor. Her commander, Sir. Lam- 
bert Lorraine, had made an earnest protest to the Governor, de- 
manding that no more British subjects be shot. General Burriel 
had ignored the letter, and two days before Cushing appeared had 



shot twenty-eight more men, sixteen of whom were said to be Brit- 
ish subjects. Immediately upon Cushing's arrival, he despatched 
a letter of protest to the Governor, and followed it up by a personal 
call, accompanied by some of his officers. Refusing to take the gen- 
eral's offered hand, he looked him squarely in the eye and de- 
manded that not another prisoner be shot, for if any more execu- 
tions took place, he would better remove the women and children, 
as he (Gushing) should bombard the town. Awed and impressed by 
the words and bearing of the American officer, General Burriel gave 
the desired promise — and kept it. 

The following year a joint resolution (House Resolution No. 88) 
was introduced in the American Congress, "tendering the thanks 
of Congress to Sir Lambert Lorraine of the British Navy, for his 
humane and generous interposition at Santiago de Cuba in protect- 
ing the lives of the survivors of the Virginius expedition," etc. The 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom the resolution was referred, 
reported that upon investigation they were pleased to add it was 
Commander W. B. Gushing, and not Sir L. Lorraine, who had caused 
the executions to cease, and "your committee believe that said 
joint resolution ought not to pass." "It fully appears that Capt. 
Ousting did his duty completely and gallantly in asserting the rights 
of the American government and its citizens, and upholding the 
honor of the American flag." Gushing, when only a junior officer, 
received the thanks of Congress in 1864 for the Albemarle exploit, 
but there were those who felt he had earned it a second time — 
which, if granted, would have been an unprecedented occurrence. 

A few days after Commander Gushing 's protest to Gen. Burriel, 
the U. S. S. Juanita, commanded by Commander D. L. Braine, ar- 
rived from New York, sent to adjust matters, and Gushing returned 
to his station at Aspinwall. 

That a hero's name and deeds are not forgotten, it should perhaps 
be recorded that so recently as 1915 two notable events in remem- 
brance of this gallant officer took place. The first was the launching 
of the second torpedo destroyer to be called CusJiing, at Quincy, 
Massachusetts, his daughter Marie giving it the cherished name. 
In the late World War the dishing was the flagship of the torpedo 
destroyer fleet sent to England. 

The second event in the same year was the unveiling of a splendid 
granite monument by his younger daughter, Katharine, at his birth- 
place at Delafield, Wisconsin. The State of Wisconsin appropri- 
ated a large sum of money and in connection with the Waukesha 
County Historical Society erected the stately shaft in a park of 
eight acres of the original farm where Alonzo and William were 
born. Howard was also born in the State, at Milwaukee, so the 
park is called "The Cushing Memorial Park." As it now belongs 
to the State Park System, it will be cared for in perpetuity. 



Commander Cushing married, February 22, 1870, Katherine 
Louise Forbes, daughter of Colonel D. S. Forbes, of Fredonia, New 
York. To them were born two daughters, Mary Louise, and Kath- 
erine A. Mrs. Cushing, a woman of taste and refinement, yet re- 
sides with her daughters in her pleasant home in Fredonia. 

The memory of William B. Cushing has been honored by various 
Grand Army posts in Wisconsin and other States of the Union 
named after him; while on the water the seagoing torpedo boat 
Cushing suggests by its character the daring of him for whom the 
vessel was named. A thousand pens have written of him and his 
deeds, and among the great and deserved tributes recorded in honor 
of his achievements the following are selected: 

"The country and the Navy may be proud of this most adventurous of their heroes. 
Cushing, by repeated daring and successful achievements, has rivaled the fame of Paul 
Jones and Perry, and associated his name with theirs in immortality." 

"That intense earnestness of purpose, that wonderful spirit of daring, and that su- 
preme contempt of death which characterized the heroes of the great Rebellion, as well 
as the cool and deliberate calculations of its great leaders and master spirits, were quali- 
ties possessed by Cushing in the highest degree : while in addition to all this he was 
gifted with a military ability, a futility of invention and all-powerful will, which places 
him among the greatest naval heroes of all time." 

"No Cleopatra of ease lured Cushing from any action of life and no thought of 
death ever cast a shadow of fear upon any enterprise, however dangerous, which he had 
conceived. He was always in the battle where the iron hail fell the thickest, and his 
place in the picture was where the blaze of the cannon was the brightest." 


/f% mm 

■SiUi i '•' " 'Mi/-?' 

Plumb and Allied Families 

Plumb Arms — Argent, a bend vaire, or and gules, between two bendlets vert. 
Crest — Out of a ducal coronet, or, three ostrich plumes, proper. 

tionary of English and Welsh Surnames," assigns the 
origin of the surname Plumb, which is variously spelled 
Plume, Plumbe, Plum, to a local source. The name 
signifies literally "at the plum," i. e., plum tree; the 
"b" in Plumb is of course excrescent. Plumb was in use in England 
among the earliest family names. The American family is descend- 
ed from the English family of County Essex. The name of Robertus 
Plumme appears in the Great Roll of Normandy, A. D. 1180; 
John Plume was in Hertfordshire in 1210, and in 1271 the surname 
is found in Somersetshire, Cambridge and Norfolk. One branch 
of the Connecticut Plumbs traces its ancestry direct to John Plumbe, 
or Plumb, of Toppesfield, County Essex, England, born about 1505 ; 
of this line, John Plumb, of Wethersfield, was the immigrant an- 
cestor and progenitor of a widely dispersed line. The late David 
Wells Plumb, manufacturer, financier, and philanthropist, of Shel- 
ton, Connecticut, was a lineal descendant of John Plumb, of Weth- 

/. John Plumb, of Terling, County Essex, was born about 1510, 
and was doubtless closely related to John Plumb, of Toppesfield, 

mentioned above. He married Johanna •, and he was buried 

January 25, 1518-19. 

II. George Plumb, son of John and Johanna Plumb, was baptized 
at Terling, England, April 23, 1517; he was buried there October 
11, 15S6, aged thirty-nine years. The names of his wife and chil- 
dren are not known, but there is good reason to believe that he and 
his sons lived at Inworth, the register of which parish is lost. 

IV. George (2) Plumb, or Plume, grandson of George (1) Plumb, 
above mentioned, was born about 1607. His will, dated July 25, 
1667, bequeathing to his wife Grace and sons John and Timothy, 
was proved July 18, 1670, and shows that he was the father of Tim- 
othy Plumb, of Hartford and Wethersfield, and of John Plumb, of 
Hartford and New London. George Plumb married (second) Sa- 
rah , who proved the will. He was buried in June, 1670, at 

Inworth, Essex, England, where he lived. 

V. John (2) Plumb, son of George Plumb, was born in Essex, 
England, in 1634, and died about 1696. He deposed at Hartford, 
Connecticut, July 11, 1666, that he was about thirty-two years old. 



John Plumb settled first in Hartford, where he resided for many- 
years. He later removed to New London, however, where he was 
elected constable in 1680. He was an inn-holder at New London, 
and also a ship-owner and master. He owned the ketch Hart- 
ford. In January, 1675-76, during King Philip's War, he was 
the bearer of dispatches from New London to the governor at Hart- 
ford, and was afterward granted laud for service in the war. Dur- 
ing the period of his residence in Hartford, he was given power 
of" attorney to collect debts at Charlestown, Massachusetts, for 
creditors in England, and was named a son of George Plumb, of 
Inworth, Essex. He married Elizabeth Green, who joined the 
church at New London in 1691. Among their children was Joseph, 
mentioned below. 

VI. Joseph Plumb, son of John (2) and Elizabeth (Green) Plumb, 
was born in Milford, Conneetiout, about 1671. and settled perman- 
ently in that town with his brother Samuel in 1692. He married, 
in 1700, Susanna Newton, who was born in July, 1673. Joseph 
Plumb died in March, 1714, and his widow was appointed adminis- 
tratrix of the estate, April 8, 1714. 

VII. Noah Plumb, son of Joseph and Susanna (Newton) Plumb, 
was bora in Stratford, Connecticut, in 1709, and died in 1776. He 
remained in Stratford and made the town his home from 1747 until 
his death. He married (first) about 173S, Abiah Piatt; (second) 
November 23, 1761, Abigail Curtiss. He died in January, 1776, and 
his will was proved, February 5, following. 

VIII. David Plumb, son of Noah and Abiah (Piatt) Plumb, was 
born in Stratford, Connecticut, June 25, 1751, and was a resident of 
the town during the Eevolutionary period. He married, December 
29, 1776, Mary Beach, and they were the parents of Noah, men- 
tioned below. 

IX. Noah (2) Plumb, son of David and Mary (Beach) Plumb, 
was born in Trumbull, Connecticut, May 3, 1782. He married 
(first) Thankful Beach; (second) Urania Wells, born November 
15, 1784. (See Wells VIII). Noah Plumb was a prominent resi- 
dent and large land owner of Trumbull. 

X. David Wells Plumb, son of Noah (2) and Urania (Wells) 
Plumb, was born in the city of Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1S09, and 
was educated in the schools of the city. On completing his studies, 
Mr. Plumb went to Derby, where he secured his first business expe- 
rience. After a short period spent in Derby, Mr. Plumb went to 
Ansonia, where he established himself independently in the woolen 
business. The venture proved most successful, and under the man- 
agement of Mr. Plumb the business was developed rapidly into one 
of the most flourishing of its kind in the associated towns of Derby 
and Ansonia. He rose within a short time to an established posi- 
tion as one of the leaders of the woolen industry. He did not, 


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however, confine his activities solely to this field, but became iden- 
tified with numerous other manufacturing enterprises in Connecti- 
cut. Among these were the Star Pin Company and the Silver 
Plate Cutlery Company, in both of which he was for many years 

Mr. Plumb was vice-president of the Birmingham Natonal Bank, 
and a member of its board of directors for twenty-two years. He 
was also president of the Housatonic and Shelton Water companies. 
In the course of his long business career, Mr. Plumb had amassed 
a considerable fortune , through shrewd investment and the skillful 
management of the enterprises with which he was connected, and 
in which he was heavily interested. A man of keen perceptions, 
well abreast of the times and thoroughly familiar with every phase 
of the industries in which he engaged and the markets which he sup- 
plied, he was talented as an organizer. Just and fair in his man- 
agement of subordinates, approachable, keenly interested in every 
movement to better conditions among the working class, he was 
an ideal executive, and had the respect and even the love of the 
men who worked under him. The welfare of the town of Shelton, 
in which he lived, was always close to his heart, and for many years 
he sponsored movements for the betterment of educational oppor- 
tunities in the town. Among the many improvements which he 
was instrumental in securing is the beautiful Piverview Park. This 
park was planned by Mr. Plumb, the grounds laid out, the site 
selected and the name given by him, and it was he who financed 
the project. One of his chief ambitions for the community was the 
founding of an adequate library at Shelton, and toward this end he 
connected himself with the Library Association, of which he was 
president for many years prior to his death. He died before ac- 
complishing his design, but his will provided a liberal fund for this 
purpose. A brother undertook the task of rearing what in effect 
was a monument to Mr. Plumb's generosity, and superintended 
the erection of the Plumb Memorial Library at Shelton, one of the 
handsomest library buildings in the State of Connecticut. These 
are but two instances of his constant concern for the good of his 
fellowmen, but they give an insight into a character in which unsel- 
fishness and altruism were dominant. 

Shortly before his death, Mr. Plumb retired from active busi- 
ness life to his home in Shelton, where he died June 29, 1893. One 
biographer tells us : 

"In personal appearance and character, Mr. Plumb was a man of energy and force. 
His well developed head and firm jaw were relieved by a mouth and eye that spoke 
unmistakably of kindliness and humor. He was a man of much original thought, and 
his interest was busy with the great problems of the ages, religious, philosophical and 
social, his opinions on these matters being well worthy of consideration. . . . His 
experience with life from his earliest youth had been that stern one which teaches 
that nothing comes without corresponding effort, and he had accordingly ordered his 
life upon a system of self-imposed discipline calculated to best preserve the strength 
and health he knew were essential to the accomplishment of his ends." 



His death was most sincerely mourned not only in Shelton, but 
in the business and financial circles of Derby and Ansonia, in which 
he had so long been a dominant figure. Tributes were paid to his 
memory by the numerous organizations with which he had been 
identified in life. None can give a more adequate conception of the 
life of the man, his character, and the importance of the part he 
played, than the following resolutions of the board of directors of 
the Birmingham National Bank : 

"Air. David \V. Plumb, for twenty-two years vice-president and director of this 
bank, died at his residence in Shelton, on the evening of the 29th of June last, at the 
age of eighty-four years and nine months. Upon us, his associates and fellow direc- 
tors, falls the duty of placing upon record our appreciation of his work and worth. 

"His was a long and busy life, the earlier years of which were years of trial and 
struggle. His courage, his patience and perseverance, and, above all, his indomitable 
will and intelligent determination, overcame all obstacles, and won for him a success 
most richly deserved. With ample resources, so worthily gained, having established him- 
self in his new home on the heights, and, looking out from its commanding position, 
as he surveyed the scene of his future activity, this thoughtful man doubtless outlined 
the plan of his life. His purpose is revealed in the important part taken by him in 
carrying to destined completion that great public work known as the Housatonic Wa- 
ter Company, in fostering and encouraging new enterprises ; in adding another name 
to the long list of towns made strong and prosperous by the thrift and energy of New 
England manufacturers ; in contributing to the endowment of a hospital in the place 
where he was born; and in the gift which made possible and actual a public park in the 
place where he died. 

"As in adversity he had shown himself equal to all its exigencies, so his spotless 
integrity, sound judgment, independence in thought and action and coolness in time of 
financial or other excitement, and faithfulness to duty, revealed him equally equipped 
for the difficulties, may it not be said, greater difficulties, which prosperity brings. 
Mr. Plumb was a man of character, strong character, simple in his tastes and ways, 
of pure life, happiest at his home. His fondness for reading and a most retentive 
memory made his knowledge extensive, accurate and responsive to call. His opinions 
were his own, and when formed were not easily changed. 

"Summoned many times by a confiding constituency to the legislative council of the 
State, his fidelity was as conspicuous as his knowledge of the needs and aids, which 
wise legislation should supply, was varied and accurate. With him public office was 
indeed a public trust. In his death this bank has lost an intelligent, efficient, faithful 
officer, one who, believing that the acceptance of office involved the obligation of ful- 
filling strictly all its duties, was uniformally present at its meetings, and by his watch- 
ful care and wise counsel rendered invaluable service to this institution. 

"The members of this board keenly feel the loss of a courteous and most intelligent 
member, associating with whom has given them the highest appreciation of his char- 
acter and worth. To the family of Mr. Plumb they tender their sincere condolence, 
and direct the secretary to transmit to them this sincere expression of their own 
loss and their sympathy with them in their bereavement." 

On December 7, 1875, Mr. Plumb married Louise Wakelee, daugh- 
ter of Ebenezer and Nancy D. (Wheeler) Wakelee, descendant of 
an old Connecticut family of early Colonial date, which has long 
been prominent in the country round about Shelton. Mrs. Plumb, 
who survives her husband, resides in Shelton. (See Wakelee). 

(The Wells Line). 

Arms — Or, a lion rampant sable double-queued, on a chief gules two annulets inter- 
laced of the field. 

Crest — Out of a mural crown proper a demi-lion, double-queued sable, holding 
between the paws two annulets interlaced or. 



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As early as the eleventh century, William the Conqueror gave to 
one of the knights who had followed him into England the Manor 
of Welles, and made him Baron, or Lord Welles. In return the 
grantee, Eiehardns de Welles, was to keep the King's household sup- 
plied with bread, and he held the manor by this tenure. In Camden's 
"Britanica" we find the entry "Richard de AVelles held the Manor 
of Welles— adjoining the Manor of Owres ever since the Conquest 
of England, by the service of being baker." The family is there- 
fore one of the most ancient in England, and is also one of the most 
notable in the Kingdom. Adam de Welles, direct descendant of 
Richard de Welles, is the ancestor and progenitor of the modern 
English and American families of the name. He is of record in the 
Gtl^year of the reign of Edward I., (127S) as paying ten marks for 
adhering to John, Earl of Moreton. 

The family in America was founded by Thomas Welles, a prom- 
inent English Puritan, who was born in England, about the year 
1570, married, about 1596, and emigrated to America in 1629— sup- 
posedly in one of the three ships, George Bonaventure, Lion's 
Whelp, or Talbot— which vessels sailed from London, in May, 1629, 
and landed at Kaumkeag (now Salem), Massachusetts, June 
24, 1629— one year before Boston was founded. He came to Amer- 
ica alone, his family consisting of six sons all residing in Essex 
county, England, vi'z. : Thomas, Hugh, Nathaniel. Edward, John, 
Joseph, they all emigrating soon afterward. About 1633 the entire 
family, with the exception of Edward, removed to Rhode Island, 
prior'to the settlement made by Roger Williams. Their descendants 
comprise one of the largest and most notable of early American 
Colonial families. 

I. Thomas Welles or Wells, Sr., founder of the family in America, 
settled in Rhode Island, where he purchased a tract of over four 
hundred acres of land, of the Narragansctt Indians, and made a 
settlement in the wilderness, which he called " Wellstown." Some 
of this land yet remains in the hands of his descendants. Thomas 
Wells died here and was buried on his own land, in that section 
which has since been called "Chimney Orchard," where a number 
of the family have since been buried. 

II. Governor Thomas (2) Wells, son of Thomas (1) Wells, was 
born in Essex county, England, in 1598. He accompanied his broth- 
er to America, and with" his father removed to the Narragansett 
country. With Hugh and John Wells he soon returned to Massa- 
chusetts, however, and in 1635 became active in the founding of the 
Connecticut Colony. He located first at Saybrook, and later re- 
moved to Hartford, where on May 1, 1637, he was chosen magis- 
trate. He was thenceforward one of the foremost public men of 
Connecticut. In April, 1639, he was chosen magistrate and treas- 
urer. He was elected moderator of the General Court, (until a gov- 


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ernor could be chosen) at a convention of the freemen, in Hart- 
ford, February, 165L On May 18th of that year he was elected 
deputy governor, and on May 17, 1655, became governor of Con- 
necticut. Again on May 28, 1656, he was elected deputy governor, 
and in 1657 tilled the oflice once again. He held other offices of 
honor and trust. Governor Thomas Wells died in Wethersfield, 
January 11, 1660, aged sixty-two years, and was buried at Hart- 
ford, where in 1S11 a monument was erected to his memory. 

Prior to his coming to America, Thomas Wells had been private 
secretary to Lord Say, and although of professed Puritan sympa- 
thies had occupied a position which gave him insight into English 
affairs of the time. His father, an Englishman of wealth and stand- 
ing, was a large land owner. He also owned and conducted a large 
hotel in London, which was frequented by the nobility. He was 
eventually suspected by the High Commission Court of entertain- 
ing Puritan beliefs and was watched closely. His son, Thomas, 
learning of this fact, hurried his father on board a vessel bound 
for America. The father lost all his property in London, and the 
son sacrificed his, among which was YCelles Hall, formerly "llayne 
Hall" in Essex, which had been his home. It will thus be seen 
that the sacrifice made by the Welles family for the safe of con- 
science and religious liberty was a great one, and that they brought 
with them to the new world, not only the heritage of birth and breed- 
ing, but a dee]> religious fervor, a love of freedom and self-deter- 
mination which has been infused into all its members to the pres- 
ent day. 

Governor Thomas Wells married (first) Elizabeth Hunt, who 
died in 1610. He married (second) Elizabeth Eoote, widow of 
Nathaniel Eoote, and sister of John Heming, one of the pioneers 
of Wethersfield. 

III. John Wells, son of Governor Thomas (2) AVells, was born in 
England, in 1621, and accompanied his parents to America. He set- 
tled in Saybrook in 1636, was in Hartford soon after, and in 1615 
settled in Stratford, where he resided until his death. He was ad- 
mitted a freeman at Hartford in 1615. In 1656-57-59 he was deputy 
to the General Court from Stratford, and in 1658 was magistrate 
and judge of probate there. He was one of the foremost citizens 
of Stratford and one of its largest land owners. In 1617 he married 
Elizabeth Curtis, daughter of John Curtis, one of the pioneer set- 
tlers of Stratford, and sister of William Curtis. She married (sec- 
ond) John AVilcoxson. 

IV. John (2) Wells, son of John (1) and Elizabeth (Curtis) 
Wells, was born in Stratford, Connecticut, in 1618, and died there, 
March 24, 1713-11. He married Mary Hollister, daughter of John 

V. Deacon Thomas (3) Wells, son of John (2) and Mary (Hol- 


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lister) Wells, was born in Stratford, in 1690. He was a prosperous 
farmer and a prominent member of the church there. He married 
in Stratford, August 31, 1710, Sarah Stiles, member of an old and 
honored Connecticut family. 

VI. Thomas (4) Wells, son of Deacon Thomas (3) Wells, was 
born in Stratford, August 20, 1717. He married Sarah Laborie. 

VII. Elias Wells, son of Thomas (1) and Sarah (Laborie) Wells, 
was born in Stratford, November 30, 1750, in the old Wells home- 
stead. He served with the Continental forces during the American 
Eevolution. Elias Wells was a prosperous farmer and well known 
citizen of Stratford. In religious faith he was an Episcopalian. 
On August 30, 1781, he married Peninah Wheeler, a descendant of 
Moses Wheeler, and member of a well known Connecticut family. 

VIII. Urania Wells, daughter of Elias and Peninah (Wheeler) 
Wells, was born in Stratford, Connecticut, November 15, 1781. She 
became the wife of Noah Plumb, of Trumbull, Connecticut, and 
mother of the late David Wells Plumb, of Shelton. (See Plumb 

(The Wakelee Line). 

Wakelee-Wakeley Arms — Gules, a chevron between three crosses crosslet argent, on 
a chief of the last a stag's head cabossed of the first. 

The surname Wakelee, a corruption of the earlier form Wakelin, 
is of baptizmal origin, and signifies literally "the son of Wakelin." 
It appears as a personal name in the Domesday Book, but as early 
as the thirteenth century had come into use as a surname, for we 
find the entry— Andrew Wakelyn— in the Hundred Rolls for County 
Norfolk. Numerous variations of the name appear in English rec- 
ords, and at a later date in American Colonial records. 

The family in America dates from the middle of the seventeenth 
century, when Henry Wakelee, ancestor of all of the name whose 
linage antedates American Independence, settled in Stratford, 
Connecticut. He became the founder of a family which, though 
small, has taken an active and prominent part in the life and 
affairs of Stratford and the surrounding country. Hon. Ebenezer 
Wakelee, a lineal descendant of Henry Wakelee, for many years a 
member of the Connecticut Legislature, and a prominent figure in 
the ranks of the Democratic party, was perhaps the foremost mem- 
ber of his family in the nineteenth century. 

Henry Wakelee, immigrant ancestor and progenitor, was one of 
the first settlers of Stratford, Connecticut, and in all probability 
one of the original proprietors. The exact date of his coming from 
England is unknown. He was a resident of Stratford before 1650, 
however, and held lot No. 15, which would indicate that he was 
among the first settlers of the town. Henry Wakelee was the son 
of Richard Wakelee, who was of Haddam, Connecticut, in 1640, and 



a freeman there in 16(59. The son had two lots in Hartford in 1639. 
On his removal to Stratford land was granted him for "services 
done by him in £ about Mattebcseek, & for some damages he re- 
ceived thereby," and also to settle differences between him and 
Middletown. lie was the first lawyer of record in Hartford, and 
in 1663 was attorney before the General Court in behalf of his son 
James, whose case was later withdrawn from court. He married 
Sarah (Burt) Gregory, daughter of Henry Burt, of Springfield, and 
widow of John Gregory, and their descendants reside in Fairfield 
county to the present day. 

Gideon Wakclee, a lineal descendant of Henry Wakelee, was a 
prominent resident of the town of Huntington, Connecticut, a large 
land owner there, and one of its foremost citizens. He married 
Lydia Morgan, member of an ancient and influential Connecticut 
family. Among their children was Ebenezer, mentioned below. 

lion. Ebenezer Wakelee, son of Gideon and Lydia (Morgan) 
Wakelee, was born in Huntington, Connecticut, May 9, 1805. He 
was educated in local schools, and on completing his studies spent 
a short period on his father's farm in Huntington. Following his 
marriage he purchased a large farm in Huntington, and began farm- 
ing on an extensive scale. At an early date he became interested 
in public affairs, and for several decades was a recognized and influ- 
ential leader of the Democratic party in Fairfield county. He held 
numerous town offices in Huntington, and as selectman, justice of 
the peace and member of the school committee, rendered a valuable 
service to the town. In recognition of his fine ability as public ser- 
vant, his unimpeachable integrity, and his deep interest in the wel- 
fare of the town, Huntington elected Ebenezer "Wakelee its repre- 
sentative in the Connecticut State Legislature. He filled this of- 
fice ably and well for several terms, and retired with the honor 
and respect of his constituents and colleagues. Hon. Ebenezer 
Wakelee occupied a unique place in the life of Huntington. As one 
Of its largest land owners, and most prosperous farmers, hos- 
pitable in the extreme, deeply interested in the town and its peo- 
ple, loving Huntington as the home of his ancestors, he was a vital 
figure in its affairs. He represented a type which is fast declining 
—the country squire, whose home was the centre of a bounteous 
hospitality, where gathered the leaders of business, politics, and the 
religious life of the community. 

Hon. Ebenezer Wakelee married Nancy Dougall Wheeler, in 1833. 
She was the daughter of Eli and Florilla (Andrews) Wheeler, born 
in Stratford, January 15, 1814. (See Wheeler VII). Their chil- 
dren were : 1. Frances, widow of Anson II. Blackman, of Strat- 
ford. 2. Louise, widow of the late David Wells Plumb, of Shelton. 
(See Plumb X). Mrs. Plumb was educated in public and private 
ischools in Connecticut. After her marriage, in 1875, Mrs. Plumb 


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removed to Shelton. Here she shared her husband's deep interest 
in the life and affairs of the town, and was his aid and confidant in 
the many movements which he inaugurated for the advancement of 
the welfare of Shelton. A woman of culture and refinement, eschew- 
ing ostentation, Mrs. Plumb has spent her life quietly within her 
home. She has in a measure attempted to fill the loss which Shel- 
ton sustained in the death of her husband, and has been liberal 
in her gifts to local causes. 3. Gideon Morgan, was long prominent 
in the "public life of Huntington, and represented the town in the 
Legislature in 1S75. 1. Elizabeth, deceased; married Julius Coe, 
of Waterbury. 5-6. Cordelia A., married S. Gr. Blakeman, of Shel- 
ton; Cornelia A., married John A. Coe, deceased, of Waterbury. 

Nancy D. (Wheeler) Wakelee died at her home in Huntington, 
November 6, 1S98. Hon. Ebenezer Wakelee died June 21, 1877, 
aged seventy-two years. 

(The Wheeler Line). 

Wheeler Anns — Vert, on a fesse or, three lions rampant of the first. 
Crest — Out of a mural crown or a griflin's head argent. 

The Wheeler family has figured notably in the history of Connec- 
ticut since the earliest years of the New T Haven Colony, in 1638, 
Moses Wheeler, an Englishman of considerable wealth according 
to the standards of the period, and evidently a man of weight in 
the community, settled in New Haven, and was among the first to 
receive an allotment of land. He subsequently settled in Stratford, 
where he was a leader in public affairs until his death. His descen- 
dants have never relinquished the prestige and influence which 
accrued to the Wheeler name when the colony was in its infancy. 
Moses Wheeler was the first of the name to settle in Connecticut. 
Other pioneers followed at a later period, and established families. 
The descendants of Moses Wheeler, however, have played vital 
parts in the public, professional and industrial life of Connecti- 
cut. The English family, of which Moses Wheeler is said to have 
been a member, flourished in the County of Kent for four hundred 
years prior to the American emigration. The surname, which is of 
the occupative class and signifies literally "the wheelwright," ap- 
pears in records of as early date as the Hundred Rolls (1273), in 
which we find the entry "Hugh le Welere," for County Cambridge. 

I. Moses Wheeler, immigrant ancestor, was born in England, in 
1598. He sailed from London in 1638, and on his arrival in New 
England went directly to the New Haven Colony, where he was 
one of the first to receive an allotment of land. Here he married 
Miriam Hawley, sister of Joseph Hawley, also one of the first set- 
tlers and one of the foremost men of the colony. He was expelled 
from the colony in 1618 because of a slight infringement of the Blue 
Laws, for which the colony was noted. According to tradition he 




remained away several months, and returned on Sunday. Forget- 
ting the "Blue Laws" in his joy at his return he kissed his wife and 
children, and for this crime was again expelled by the authorities. 
Pie then joined the little settlement at Stratford, where he pur- 
chased a house from the Indians on the shore, near what is now 
known as Sandy Hollow. Moses Wheeler afterwards bought a 
large piece of land in the upper part of the town, extending from 
the river to some distance above the site of the present New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad. Here he had a large farm, where 
he sometimes followed his trade of carpenter. He was given com- 
mission by the General Court to keep a ferry at Stratford, which he 
had already established. Seventeen years later, the town leased the 
ferry to him with thirty or forty acres of upland adjoining it, for 
twenty-one years, without tax or rate except sixpence per annum. 
The inhabitants were "to be ferried over for one-half penny per 
person and two pence for horse or beast." The town agreed to 
pay for any improvements he had made if he should leave it at the 
expiration of his lease. His son's will, proved January 23, 1721- 
25, shows that he received the ferry from his father. Moses "Wheel- 
er, and left it to his own son Nathan, so it remained in the family 
for at least one hundred years. He disposed of most of his land to 
his sons ten years before his death. His holdings were very large, 
and he was one of the foremost men of Stratford. Tradition tells 
us that Moses Wheeler was a strong, powerful man, of whom the 
Indians stood in mortal terror. He returned to England in 1665, 
but returned to Stratford almost immediately because the "Great 
Plague" was raging in the mother country. He died January 15, 
1698, the first white man in New England to attain one hundred 
years. A rough stone, cut from the rocks at his homestead, marks 
his grave in the old Congregational church-yard, at Stratford, with 
the inscription: "Moses Wheeler, Aged 100, Dyed Jan. 15th, 
1698." His will was proved on February 19th following. After 
disposing of his real and personal property, he says: "I give 
to my daughter Miriam two pewter dishes, to my son Moses, his 
wife, ye pewter platter, and to my daughter Mary, a bras kitle 
houlding ten to twelve gallons, the Abridgement of the Marter 
Booke, and Mr. Brooks His Devices of Satan, and to Elizabeth ye 
wife of my son Samuel, ye great kitle, and to Mr. Israel Chauncey 
twenty shillings in silver." Moses and Miriam (Hawley) Wheeler 
were the parents of six ehilldren, of whom Moses, mentioned below, 
was the fourth child and second son. 

//. Moses (2) Wheeler, son of Moses (1) and Miriam (Hawley) 
Wheeler, was born in Stratford, Connecticut, July 5, 1651. He in- 
herited the ferry from his father, together with the homestead. He 
removed to the stone house which his father built, and replaced it 
with a wooden dwelling, which was standing until May 12, 1891, 



■when it was destroyed by fire. Moses Wheeler was a prosperous 
fanner and prominent citizen of Stratford, where he died January 
30, 1724. He is buried beside his father, with a similar headstone, 
inscribed as follows : "Here Lavs The Body of Mr. Moses Wheeler 
Who Departed This Life Jan. 30th.l724, in The 74th. Year of His 
Age." He was one of the wealthiest men of Stratford, and his 
estate was inventoried at £1,463 5s. 6d. He bequeathed to his 
wife five pounds above their marriage agreement ; to his son James 
forty pounds; also to his sons Nathan and Eobert, his daughter, and 
his grandchildren. His son Elnathan or Nathan was made his 
executor, and inherited all his lands, with the ferry, and all mov- 
able goods and personal estate. He married Sarah, daughter of 
Caleb Nicholls, October 20, 1674. (See Nicholls VII). 

III. Nathan ~\Yhecler, son of Moses (2) and Sarah (Nicholls) 
Wheeler, was born in Stratford, January 31, 16S0-81. He married 

(first) Mary , who died February 2, 1713; (second) Mary 

Stebbins, of Springfield, December 16, 1716; (third) Elizabeth 

, who was born in 1688, died in 1739. He died in 1765 or 

1766. His will, dated December 28, 1762, was proved June 2, 1766, 
and disposes of land to his four sons, giving to Moses land at 
"White Hills," "Farm Hill," and at "Paul's Pond;" to David 
land at "Walnut Hill" and "Israel's Hill;" to Moses and David 
land in New Milford. 

IV. Ephraim Wheeler, son of Nathan and Elizabeth Wheeler, was 
baptized at Stratford, in July, 1723. He was a life-long resident of 
Stratford, a prosperous land owner, and a leading citizen. He 
married, March 9, 1743, Sarah Wilcoxson. 

V. Captain Samuel Wheeler, son of Ephraim and Sarah (Wilcox- 
son) Wheeler, was born in Stratford, October 4, 1757. He was a 
master mariner and captain of a sloop engaged in the coast-wise 
trade. Captain Wheeler married (first) Sarah Morehouse, June 
20, 1776; (second) Hannah Hawley, November 26, 1781. (See Haw- 
ley V). Children of first marriage: 1. Samuel, born September 14, 
1777. 2. John, born November 28, 1780. Children of second mar- 
riage: 3. Sarah, born October, 1782. 4. Betsey, born December 14, 
1785, died young. 5. Nancy, born December 17, 1787. 6. David 
Hawley, born November 10, 1789. 7. Eli, mentioned below. 8. Ev- 
erett. 9. Hannah, married John Ford. 10. James, married Eunice 

VI. Eli Wheeler, son of Captain Samuel and Hannah (Hawley) 
Wheeler, was born in Stratford, Connecticut, and baptized there 
August, 1792. He followed agricultural pursuits in Stratford dur- 
ing the greater part of his life, was a prosperous land owner, and 
one of the leading citizens of the community in his day. Eli Wheel- 
er married Florilla Andrews, in 1813. They were the parents of 
Nancy Dougall, mentioned below. The Andrews arms are as fol- 



Arms— Gules, a saltire or, surmounted by another vert. 

Crest — A blackmoor's head in profile, couped at the shoulders and wreathed about 
the temple, all proper. 

Motto — Virtute et fortuna (By valour and good fortune). 

VI J. Nancy Dougall Wheeler, daughter of Eli and Florilla (An- 
drews) Wheeler, was born in Stratford, January 15, 1814. She was 
given the best educational advantages which Stratford afforded, 
and on completing her studies taught for a short period in the local 
schools. She was a brilliant student, and an able teacher. A wo- 
man of culture and refinement, she filled an honored and influential 
place in the conservative society of the Stratford of her day. In 
1833, Nancy Dougall Wheeler became the wife of Ebenezer Wake- 
lee, of Huntington, Connecticut. (See Wakelee). She was the 
mother of six children, of whom Louise, widow of the late David 
Wells Plumb, of Shelton, was the second. Mrs. Wakelee died No- 
vember 6, 1898, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Plumb, and was 
buried in Riverside Cemetery, Shelton. 

(The Morgan Line). 

Morgan Arms — Or. a griffin segreant sable. 
Crest — A reindeer's head couped or, attired gules. 
Motto — Onward and upward. 

The Morgans of Connecticut gave to America her most noted 
financier, the late John Pierpont Morgan. Men of the name have 
figured notably in American history since the time of the founding 
of the family in New England, in 1636, by James Morgan. Daniel 
Morgan, famous Virginian soldier of the American Revolution, was 
a member of this family, as were also Edwin Dennison Morgan, 
merchant and philanthropist (1811-83); John Hunt Morgan (1825- 
64) ; and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-81), noted ethnologist. 

James Morgan, the founder of the family in America, w T as born in 
Landaff, Glamorgan county, Wales, but the family appears to have 
removed to Bristol, England, before 1636. The name of his father 
is unknown, but there is some traditionary evidence that it was 
William. In March, 1636, he and two younger brothers, John and 
Miles, sailed from Bristol and arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, 
in April following. John Morgan, who appears to have been a 
high churchman, soon left for the more congenial society of Vir- 
ginia. Miles Morgan settled in Springfield. James Morgan set- 
tled in Roxbury before 1640, and lived there for ten years or more. 
He was admitted a freeman, May 10, 1643, and early in 1650 was 
granted land at Pequot, later New London, Connecticut. Shortly 
afterward he removed there, and occupied a homestead on the 
path to New street, (now Ashcraft street) near the present third 
burial ground in the western suburbs of the city. He continued 
to occupy this homestead on the path to New street or Cape Ann 



lane, as it was called, in honor of the Cape Ann Company, which 
chiefly settled there, until about March, 1657. He sold his homestead, 
however, in December, 1G5G, and removed with others across the 
river to sites granted him in the present town of Groton. That 
town and Ledyard, set off in 1836, have been the home of his 
descendants to the present day. He was a large land owner and 
a dealer in land; distinguished in public enterprises. James Mor- 
gan was often employed by the town in land surveys, establishing 
highways, determining boundaries, adjusting civil difficulties as a 
magistrate, etc. He was one of the townsmen or selectmen of New 
London, and one of the first deputies to the General Court at Hart- 
ford (May, 1657), and was nine times afterward re-elected to the 
office. In 1661 he was one of a committee to lay out the bounds 
of New London. He was on a committee to seat the meeting house, 
a difficult task, because the seating determined the social standing 
of all the people. The spot where he built his house in Groton in 
1657, and where he resided until his death, is three miles from the 
Groton ferry, on the road to Poquonoc bridge. The house and prop- 
erty still remain in the hands of his lineal descendants. 

James Morgan married, August 6, 1610, Margery Hill, of Rox- 
bury. Through them descend the Morgans of Connecticut, and nu- 
merous branches of the family throughout the country. 

Lydia Morgan, wife of Gideon Wakelee, of Huntington, and 
grandmother of Mrs. David Wells Plumb, of Shelton, was a lineal 
descendant of James Morgan. 

(The Nichols-Nicholls Line). 
Nichols Arms — Azure, a fesse between three lions' heads erased or. 

Nieuw Amsterdam, passing from Dutch to English domination, its 
name changed to New York in honor of the English Duke of York, 
had for its first governor under the new regime, Sir Richard Nichols, 
a titled and distinguished Englishman, who after three years in 
the New World returned to the mother country in 1667. He estab- 
lished the first Episcopal church in New York. Under the command 
of James, Duke of York, he commanded the fleet that took New 
Netherlands from the Dutch in 1664 and renamed it New York. 
His brother, Francis Nichols, founder of the famous Connecticut 
family of the name, had preceded him to the New England Colonies, 
and as early as 1639 had made his permanent home in Stratford. It 
is with the Stratford Nichols that this article is to deal. 

The family in England is one of great antiquity and prominence. 
The surname is one of the earliest of English surnames and is found 
in records of as ancient date as the Hundred Rolls. It signifies lit- 
erally "the son of Nicholas." 

/. Robert Nichols, of London, the first of the direct line to whom 



it has been possible to trace, was the owner of a mansion in Lon- 
don, and of extensive estates in different parts of the kingdom. He 
died in 1648, and his will, which mentions three sons and his grand- 
son Robert, was proved June 20, of that year. He married Eliza- 
beth or Isabel . 

II. Thomas Nichols, eldest son of Robert Nichols, married Eliza- 
beth Popplewell, and died in 1561, leaving real estate in various 
parishes in London. Tottenhall Court, and other places, to his sons. 
Besides family legacies, he bequeathed one hundred pounds each to 
the four hospitals in London, and made gifts to numerous other 

III. Antony Nichols, son of Thomas Nichols, married Mary Wal- 
dron, of Say, Somerset county. On the monument of his daughter 
Elizabeth, he is mentioned as living in Paddington, now a part of 

IV. Francis Nichols, son of Antony and Mary (Waldron) Nichols, 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir George Bruce, of Carnock, who 
was a son of Robert Bruce. Edward Bruce, father of Robert Bruce, 
was born in 1565, son of Sir Robert Bruce. He was a son of Sir 
David Bruce, who was born in 1197 ; the line traces backward 
through Sir David Bruce; Sir David Bruce; Sir Robert Bruce; 
Sir Edward Bruce ; Robert Bruce, of Clackmanan, son of King 
Robert Bruce, of Scotland, who was born in 1331. In 1613 the 
custody of the Great Park at Ampthill in Bedfordshire was granted 
to Sir George Bruce, Margaret (Bruce) Nichols' father, the honor 
of Ampthill being vested in the Crown. Under this arrangement 
the Nichols family for many years leased Great Park from the 
Bruces, and lived at the Great Lodge or Capitol Mansion. Francis 
Nichols is called in the pedigree of 1628, of the Middle Temple, one 
of the Squires of the Bath. He was buried at Ampthill, about 
forty miles from London. The will of his wife Margaret was dated 
April 20, 1651; William Nichols, dean of Chester, and her "ancient 
servant," Thomas Greene, alias Hodson, were executors; she be- 
queathed all to her son Francis. The will of Sir AVilliam Craford, 
Knight, of the Beckerings Park, Bedfordshire, dated February 
24, 1634, proved May 28, 1636, and filed in the Prerogative Court, 
Canterbury, England, bequeaths "To Margaret Bruce, wife of Fran- 
cis Nicholls, 50 pounds. Francis Nicholls, Esq., now in the 
Indies, 150 pounds." The children of Francis and Margaret (Bruce) 
Nichols were: 1. Edward, born before 1600; held military office 
under the Royalist regime ; he was forced to flee the country under 
the Commonwealth and never returned ; died in Paris. 2. Francis, 
mentioned below. 3. Bruce, a daughter, married John Frecheville 
(baron), of Stavely, Derby, and died in 1629. 4. Richard, governor 
of New York in 1664, returned to England in 1667. 5. William, 
died young. 



V. Sergeant Frauds (2) Nicholls, son of Francis (1) Nichols, (or 
Nicholls) Sr., and Margaret Bruce, his wife, was born in England 
before 1600. He emigrated in 1635, and was among the first settlers 
of Stratford, Connecticut, where he was living as early as 1639. He 
had military training, and was a member of the Horse Guards in 
London prior to his coming to America. In 1639 he was chosen to 
train and exercise the men of Stratford in military discipline. Fran- 
cis Nicholls subsequently removed to "Westchester county, New 
York. He was also an extensive land owner in Southhold, Long 
Island, where he married Anna, daughter of Deacon Barnabas 
Wines. His estate was distributed among his children before his 
death, in 1650. 

VI. Caleb Nicholls, son of Sergeant Francis (2) Nicholls, came 
to Stratford with his father in 1639. About 1650 he married Ann 
AVarde, daughter of Andrew and Esther (Sherman) Warde, of Fair- 
field. Until 1670 he lived at Stratford, and then removed to Wood- 
bury, Connecticut, although he kept his proprietary rights at Strat- 
ford. In his will he left his plantation at Woodbury to his wife and 
children. Caleb Nicholls was prominent in civil life in Stratford, 
and held the office of "Townsman" or selectman often. In 1661, 
when a selectman with Samuel Sherman and John Hurd, Esquires, 
he purchased from the Indians, for the inhabitants of Stratford, a 
large tract of land. 

VII. Sarah Nicholls, daughter of Caleb and Ann (Warde) Nich- 
olls, was born in Stratford, Connecticut, December 1, 1651. She 
married, October 20, 1671:, Moses (2) Wheeler, of Stratford. (See 
Wheeler II). 

(The Hawley Line). 

Arms — Vert, a saltire engrailed argent. 

Crest — A dexter arm embowed in armour proper, garnished or, holding in the hand 
a spear pointing downwards, also proper. 

The surname Hawley is inscribed on the famous Roll of Battle 
Abbey, compiled by the Norman knights of William the Conqueror, 
following the battle of Hastings, A. D. 1066. The family has been 
prominent in Derbyshire since the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury; the Hawleys have been large land holders, and in numerous 
branches entitled to bear arms. 

The American branch is an offshoot of the ancient Derbyshire 
family, and comprises the progeny of three brothers of the name 
who settled in New England prior to the middle of the seventeenth 
century. Joseph Hawley, founder of the well known Connecticut 
family, was a proprietor of Stratford as early as 1650, and the 
founder there of a large and influential family which has taken 
a vital part in the life of the community for over two hundred and 
fifty years. 



/. Joseph Hawley, immigrant ancestor and progenitor, was a na- 
tive of Derbyshire, England. The exact date of his coming to 
America is unknown. As early as 1650, however, he was one of the 
proprietors of Stratford. In that year or perhaps shortly before, 
he purchased from Richard Miles, Lot No. 37, where he made his 
home until his death. From time to time he received grants of land 
from the town, and a share in the division of common lands. Evi- 
dently a man of education and ability, he rose rapidly to a position 
of prominence in public affairs. From 1650 to 1666 he was the town 
recorder of Stratford. He represented the town in the Connecticut 
General Court thirty times in thirty-three years. Joseph Hawley 
was more than usually active as a business man. He purchased of 
the Indians a large tract of land in Derby, which town allowed him 
to retain the old Indian planting ground, and another tract which 
adjoined it, including the "Great Hill." Stratford tradition states 
that he married Catherine Birdseye, a niece of John Birdseye, of 
New Haven and TVethersfield. Joseph Hawley stands out prom- 
inently in the early history of Stratford. His descendants have 
been among the leading families of Connecticut for several genera- 
tions. In his will, Joseph Hawley bequeaths land at Parwich, Der- 
byshire, England, to his son Samuel. 

II. Samuel Haivley, son of Joseph and Catherine (Birdseye) 
Hawley, was born in 1617, and died in 1734. He was a prominent 
resident of Stratford, where he married (first) in 1673, Mary 
Thompson, daughter of Thomas and Ann (Wills) Thompson, of 
Farmington, Connecticut; she died in 1691, and he married (sec- 
ond) Patience Hall, daughter of "Widow Hall." 

777. Matthew Hawley, son of Samuel and Mary (Thompson) 
Hawley, w r as born in Stratford, Connecticut, November 7, 1680. 
He was a life long resident of Stratford and a prosperous farmer 
there. The name of his wife is not known. 

IV. Matthew (2) Hawley, son of Matthew (1) Hawley, was born 
in Stratford, February 16, 1720, and died there May 31, 1790, aged 

seventy years. He married Bethia , who was born March 

19, 1725, 'and died January 21, 1786. 

V. Hannah Hawley, daughter of Matthew (2) and Bethia Haw- 
lev, married on November 26, 1781, in Stratford, Captain Samuel 
Wheeler. (See Wheeler V). 


AUcrton Arms — Argent a chevron between three lions' heads erased sable. 
Crest — A lion's head sable, collared or. 

jp^p£=f ; IIE surname Allerton is of ancient English origin, and is 
derived from two local sources— one the parish of Al- 
lerton, in Yorkshire ; and the other the township of Al- 
lerton, in the parish of Kippax, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. From either of these two localities the pro- 
genitors of the Allertons of England and America sprang. The 
family has never been large, and because of this fact has maintained 
its identity through the successive centuries since the time of its 
founding. The first record of the name in early English registers 
occurs in the year 1379, in the Poll Tax of Yorkshire, when we 
find mention of Willelmus de Allirton. 

The Allertons of America, who trace their lineage to the Colonial 
period, are the descendants of Isaac Allerton, one of the May- 
flower company, and fifth signer of the Compact. "Mr." Aller- 
ton, as Plymouth records designate him, was a man of excellent 
4jirth, a prosperous merchant of high standing in London, whose 
consummate business genius was badly needed among the religious 
enthusiasts of early Plymouth, and whose ministrations in London 
after the founding of the little colony were the means of estab- 
lishing its right to the land on which it settled. Religious leaders 
were numerous in Plymouth, but there was no other man in all the 
colony so well fitted by long experience and association with men 
of influence in London to transact the business affairs of the col- 
ony, as was Isaac Allerton. Few historians have recognized the 
importance of the part he played, nor is it apparent to the casual 
reader. Nevertheless it was one of vital moment to early Plymouth. 
The descendants of Isaac Allerton have been a rugged, capable 
stock, who have left the imprint of their lives on the communities 
which they have made their homes. The branch herein under con- 
sideration is that of Samuel Waters Allerton, whose death in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, on February 22, 1914, removed one of the foremost 
figures in business and financial circles in the Middle West in the 
last half century. 

/. Mr. Isaac Allerton, the founder, was born in England between 
the years 1583-85. He was a member of the Pilgrim company at 
Leyden, Holland, and in 1620 was one of those chosen to found 
the Pilgrim company in New England. He was one of the wealth- 



iest of the little band in Holland and one of its leaders, being one of 
the three on whom the Dutch conferred citizenship. He was one of 
the Mayflower Company in 1620, and was the fifth signer of the 
Mayflower Compact. On the records of Plymouth Colony the 
honorable prefix "Mr." is always ddded to his name, which fact in 
itself, without the evidence of the position of importance which he 
held in the early colony, is proof of the fact that he was a man of 
large influence whose voice was an important one in the councils 
of the Pilgrims. Shortly after the arrival of the company he, with 
Captain Miles Standish, negotiated a peace with Massasoit which 
held for fifty years. He received numerous grants of land, and 
during his early years at Plymouth engaged in building houses and 
shelters for the company, and in clearing his land. In 1021 he was 
chosen Assistant Governor of Plymouth Colony, holding the office 
until 1624. In 1626 he was sent to England by the colonists, as 
Bradford in his journal says, as "being well qualified by education 
and experience and having the confidence of the merchants of Lon- 
don. " He arranged there for the sale of Plymouth to the Pil- 
grims, and without doubt his excellent work was responsible for the 
further existence of the colony. At the same time the trade of the 
colony was bound to William Bradford, Isaac Allerton, and others, 
who assumed the entire indebtedness at Plymouth Colony to the 
London merchants. Mr. Isaac Allerton subsequently engaged in 
"'coastwise trade with Maine, New Amsterdam, and Virginia, which, 
however extensive it may have been, was not highly successful or 

As a man in constant touch with the large business interests of 
London, moving in a circle of the foremost merchants of the time in 
England, of broad education and culture, Mr. Isaac Allerton was 
essentially liberal in his views of life and religion. In this he dif- 
fered constantly with the narrow minds of Plymouth, and in 1636, 
disgusted with the intolerance which he encountered, he w r ent to 
New Amsterdam, where he was well received. Here in 1613 he 
became a member of the Council of Governor Kieft. In this year he 
suffered many misfortunes. While in New Amsterdam he car- 
ried on a trade with Virginia and the West Indies, making frequent 
voyages to both places. In 1646 he returned to New England, set- 
tling in New Haven, where he remained until his death in 1659. 
Isaac Allerton married (first) in Leyden, Holland, November 4, 
1611, Mary Morris, of Newbury, England, who died in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, February 25, 1621. He married (second) in 1626, 
Fear Brewster, daughter of Elder William Brewster; she died in 
1634. Isaac Allerton is buried in the Old Burying Ground in New 

II. Isaac (2) Allerton, son of Isaac and Fear (Brewster) Aller- 
ton, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1630. He was a grad- 



uatc of Harvard College in the class of 1650, and on completing his 
studies accompanied his father on voyages between Plymouth, New 
Haven, New Amsterdam and Virginia, and was associated 
with him in the coasting business. As early as the year 
1655 he purchased land at Wicomico, Northumberland coun- 
ty, Virginia, whither he removed after the death of his wife in 
New Haven, in 1660. He became a prominent figure in the life of 
the county, and was made one of the justices of the county, on 
April '22, 1663; he was made a member of the "Committee of the 
Association of Northumberland, "Westmoreland and Stafford Coun- 
ties," November 1, 1667. In September, 1675, he held the rank 
of major, second in command to Colonel John Washington, of Vir- 
ginia forces against the Indians. In 1676-77 he was a member 
of the House of Burgesses, and continued prominent in Virginia life 
and affairs until his death in 1702. His will, dated October 25, 1702, 
was proved December 30 of the same year. Isaac Allerton married 
in 1652, Elizabeth , and made his home in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, until her death in 1660. 

///. Isaac (3) Allerton, son of Isaac (2) and Elizabeth Allerton, 
was born in New Haven, June 11, 1655. Pie accompanied his father 
to Virginia when a child, but about 1683 returned to New Haven 
and resided there and in Norwich, Connecticut, until the closing 
years of his life. Late in life he removed to Coventry, Khode Is- 
land. Isaac (3) Allerton was a farmer on an extensive scale, 
and a successful business man. He served in the Indian Wars. 

IV.\John Allerton, son of Isaac (3) Allerton, was born in New 
Haven, about 1685. He removed to Norwich in 1711-12, and was one 
of the first selectmen of the town in 1721. He removed from Nor- 
wich to Warwick, Rhode Island, where he became a freeman, in May, 
1739. On August 3, 1741, the west end of the town of Warwick be- 
came Coventry, and in May, 1742, John Allerton became a free- 
man there. He died in Coventry, in 1750, and his widow, Elizabeth, 
subsequently removed with her daughter, who was the wife of a Mr. 
Sweet, to New York State. 

V. Isaac (4) Allerton, son of John and Elizabeth Allerton, was 
born in Norwich, Connecticut, August 15, 1725. He resided at 
Canterbury, and Plainfield, Connecticut, where he was a builder and 
contractor, conducting this business in conjunction with farming. 
He was prosperous, and a man of considerable wealth prior to the 
American Revolution. He was an ardent patriot, and supported 
the Continental cause so liberally, taking in exchange for his debts 
the paper money of the period, that at the close of the war he was 
ruined financially. He lost his property, and to recoup his losses 
removed to Amenia, Dutchess county, New York, in 1792, founding 
a branch of the New England Allertons there. He died there, De- 
cember 26, 1807. 



Isaac Allerton possessed many heirlooms and relics of the May- 
flower Company and the early Plymouth Colony, among them a 
broad-axe, and a fuzee-gun, taken in battle from an Indian warrior. 
These were lost after his death, but the tradition remains in the 
family. He married, about 1745, Lucy Spaulding, daughter of 
Philip and Ann (Cleveland) Spaulding, who survived him until 

VI. Dr. Beuben Allerton, son of Isaac (4) and Lucy (Spaulding) 
Allerton, was born at Canterbury, Connecticut, December 25, 1753. 
He was well educated, and studied medicine under Dr. Fitch, of 
New tlaven, and surgery under Dr. Spaulding, of Norwich, Connec- 
ticut. He became a recognized leader in the medical profession in 
Connecticut in his day. Dr. Reuben Allerton was an early settler in 
the town of Amenia, New York, where in 1787 he purchased the farm 
of Abner Gillet. He established himself in practice there in 1778. 
In 1785 he removed to Oblong, where he lived in the John Eced 
house. Later he returned to South Amenia, where he resided until 
his death. Dr. Allerton was a surgeon in the American Revolution, 
serving under Colonel Hopkins in the 6th Regiment in 1777. He 
took part with his regiment in the battle of Saratoga. Some of his 
surgical instruments are still in the possession of his descendants. 

On September 1, 1778, he married, in Sharon, Connecticut, Lois 
Atherton, who was born in 1757, in Newton, New Jersey, daughter 
of John and Lucy (Sawyer) Atherton, of Sharon, Connecticut. 

VII. Samuel Waters Allerton. son of Dr. Reuben and Lois (Ath- 
erton^, Allerton, was born at Amenia, Dutchess county, New York, 
December 5, 1785. He studied for the medical profession, but 
abandoned his studies and learned the tailor's trade, becoming a 
successful merchant tailor. In 182S he was one of the stockholders 
and owners of a woolen factory, which was ruined in 1833 b} T the 
reduction of the protective tariff by the Democratic administration. 
In 1837, in an effort to restore his fortune he went to Iowa. Here 
he became ill, however, and was forced to return home, practically 
penniless. He retained a respected and honored position in the 
town, however, and for several years was a trustee of the Pres- 
byterian church of Amenia, although he was of the Universalist 
faith. He was deputy sheriff of Dutchess county for three years. 
In 1842, Mr. Allerton removed to Yates county, New York, and in 
1848 to Wayne county, where he purchased a farm and where he 
resided until his death, on August 10, 1885, at the venerable age of 
99 years and eight months. He was a man of sterling integrity 
and hardy virtues, of the type we think of as the true New Eng- 

He married, March 26, 1808, Hannah Hurd, who was born in 
South Dover, Dutchess county, New York, daughter of Ebenezer 
and Rebecca (Phillips) Hurd. They were the parents of nine chil- 

94 * 

W~>-^ -"■ ~ .. , . ... 







iui .„— ^. £sfc ---■-.-.. .-• ... - -■■■ a* ,- : ,f..„ T -.-n^ vt-'- 


dren, of whom the late Samuel Waters Allerton (q. v.) and 'his 
sister, Lois J. Allerton, were the youngest. 

VIII. Miss Lois J. Allerton is the only living member of this large 
family. She was born January 26. 1826, was given excellent edu- 
cational advantages, and at the age of fourteen years began to teach 
school. Remaining with her parents, Miss Allerton retired from the 
teaching profession, and devoted herself to the care of her mother 
and father until the latter's death at the venerable age of over 
ninety-nine years. She has been exceptionally successful in busi- 
ness ventures, and has accumulated a large fortune. Miss Aller- 
ton is a gifted cellist.. For more than half a century she has been 
a well known and active figure in the life of Newark, and in her 
ninety-fourth year (1920) is still influential in local affairs, moving 
in the conservative old social circles of the town. She is a member 
of the Universalist church. 

VIII. Samuel Waters (2) Allerton, son of Samuel Waters (1) 
and Hannah (Hurd) Allerton, was born in Amenia, Dutchess coun- 
ty, New York, May 26, 1S28. His career as a business man and 
financier of Chicago in the closing decades of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury places him among the foremost figures of that period of the 
city's history. The record of his early life reveals the constant 
struggle and unceasing labor of farm life, but in the grinding toil 
on an unproductive farm he laid the foundations on which he built 
his subsequent success in the business world. He learned the value 
of hard work, and to the closing years of his life he was essentially 
a worker. 

Samuel W. Allerton was the youngest of a family of nine chil- 
dren, and was but seven years of age when his father failed in busi- 
ness. At the age of twelve years he became self-supporting, and 
while yet a boy was thrust on life with the responsibilities of a man. 
In 1842 he removed with his parents to Yates county, New York, 
where they remained only long enough, however, to partially recoup 
their losses. The family then bought the Wayne county farm, and 
Mr. Allerton joined his brother Henry Allerton in renting a farm on 
which they made fifteen hundred dollars. This sum they gave in 
partial payment for the farm in Wayne county, assuming an indebt- 
edness of three thousand dollars. Mr. Allerton then rented a farm 
on which he was able through the closest w r orking to save thirty-two 
hundred dollars. With this capital he went to Newark, where he 
worked with his brothers on their farm, and also traded in live 
stock to some extent. On abandoning this enterprise, Mr. Allerton 
went to Albany, where he disposed of his live stock at a considerable 
profit. Returning to Newark, he found himself the owner of a third 
interest in the farm, then free of all indebtedness, and in three 
thousand dollars. The brothers divided their interests, Mr. Aller- 
ton taking the cash capital, and starting out independently. At the 



end of his first venture, the sale of cattle in New York, his sales 
amounted to seven hundred dollars. He continued in this business 
for several years, and within a short period developed it far beyond 
its original limits, just before his removal to the AVest making* 
a sale in New York which netted him three thousand dollars. 

Around this period he heard the call of the West, and with the 
optimism of youth saw only the golden promise of a land teaming 
with untried resources. He joined the tide of emigration, and for 
a year engaged in raising and feeding cattle in Fulton county. Illi- 
nois, but like hundreds of others he was the victim of the financial 
panic which swept the country shortly afterward. Broken in 
finances and in health, but still buoyant in spirits, he returned to the 
East, and with his brother engaged in merchandising in Newark, 
New York, until, no longer able to stand the narrowness of outlook 
and the confinement of the life, he disposed of his interests in the 
store and, borrowing live thousand dollars, returned to Fulton coun- 
ty, Illinois, whence in 1860 he removed to Chicago. 

Mr. Allerton began his operations in Chicago as a wholesale 
dealer in live stock at that period of the city's history when it had 
no bank, and he watched its expansion from struggling infancy to 
the place which it now occupies in American life and affairs. He 
bought his first cattle shipment in the old Merrick yards on Cot- 
tage Grove avenue, and since the city had no bank, was dependent 
for money on express shipments from New Y T ork. In May, 1860, 
upon sharp decline of prices, he cornered the market by buying 
every hog in Chicago. He was at that time alone in the city, and it 
was difficult for him to obtain money. Three telegrams, one from 
his own bank and twcrfrom New York, however, were regarded as 
sufficient security by Aiken & Morgan, bankers, to secure him a loan 
.at one per cent, interest, and the profit which accrued from that 
deal constituted the foundation of his fortune. Moreover, the 
experience brought to him a recognition of the need and value of 
nnion stock yards and better banking facilities in Chicago, and he 
set to work to accomplish both. In the '60s there were three stock 
yards in Chicago. In 1863 he joined with John B. Sherman in the 
agitation of a proposition to combine the interests, and that their 
labors were fruitful is indicated in the fact that the Union Stock 
Yards were organized in 1S66. Shortly thereafter Mr. Allerton 
rose to a position of recognized leadership in the industry, not only 
-in Chicago, but in the other centres of the Middle AYest and the 
"East. He also became interested in the stock yards at Pittsburg, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Jersey City (New York stockyards), St. 
.Joseph and Omaha. For many years he was president of the Aller- 
ton Packing Company. His early experience with the banks of Chi- 
■cago led to his efforts for the establishment of the first Chicago 
'bank under the national banking law, and he became one of the orig- 



inal directors of the First National Bank, in which he held large 
interests until his death. Despite the great demands which his 
widely diversified Chicago interests made upon his time, Mr. Aller- 
ton never lost his early love for agriculture, and on his vast farm- 
ing properties he found not only recreation but an avocation. At 
one time his holdings comprised eleven thousand acres in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, including farm land in Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Nebraska 
and Wyoming. He was the owner of nine thousand acres near 
Monticello, Illinois, known as "The Farms," which is one of the 
model live-stock farms of the world, now the property of his son. 
The manor house on this vast estate is modeled after the typical 
residence of the English country gentleman, and although every acre 
is tilled to perfection, fine horses, cattle and hogs, are the chief 
sources of revenue. Mr. Allerton took great pride and delight in 
his beautiful summer home at Lake Geneva. AYisconsin. His winter 
residence in California was an old Spanish mission building, con- 
verted into a quaint yet elegant home in the style of the period in 
which it was built. 

Every phase of the development and growth of the city of Chi- 
cago interested him, and to his constant efforts in behalf of civic wel- 
fare Chicago owes much. After watching the workings of the cable 
street car company in San Francisco in 1880, he used his influence 
as a stockholder in the South Side Traction System for the estab- 
lishment of a similar system in Chicago, inducing Superintendent 
Holmes to investigate its merits. The result was the introduction 
of the cable by all the street railway lines in the city. Mr. Allerton 
was until his death a director of the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany. From the time of the founding of the First National Bank 
in 1863 until his death, he was one of its directors ; and was also a 
director^ef-the First Trust and Savings Bank, the National Safe 
Deposit Company, the Weaver Coal and Coke Company, and the 
North Waukegan Harbor and Dock Company, and vice-president 
of the Art Marble Company. 

His gifts to charitable causes throughout his life were large, many 
of them, however, were made quietly as worthy causes presented 
themselves to him. One of the most notable of his larger gifts was 
the establishment, in conjunction with the late Henry E. Weaver, of 
the St. Charles Home for Boys. He was a Republican in political 
affiliation, deeply interested in local and national issues, but in no 
sense of the word an office-seeker. Mr. Allerton was one of the 
directors of the World's Columbian Exposition. He was widely 
known in club and social life in Chicago, and was a member of the 
Calumet, Union League, Washington Park, Chicago Golf and Mar- 
quette clubs. Americana, historical and genealogical research, in- 
terested him deeply, and he was one of the founders of the Illi- 
nois Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was also 



a member of the Society of Mayflower Descendants, tracing his 
descent through eight generations from Isaac Allerton, founder of 
the family in New England. 

A man of simple tastes, who, despite the vigorous character of 
his business life, had lived a life ordered according to the law of 
nature, Mr. Allerton died February 22, 1914, having attained the 
venerable age of sixty-six years, marked by the passing of his con- 
temporaries, the founders of Chicago's great industries, the Ar- 
mours, Morrisses, Pullmans, Swifts, Palmers and Fields, and he 
saw the advent of the younger generations launching even greater 
ventures than their fathers. He was a veritable store-house of Chi- 
cago history, written and unwritten. To the time of his death he 
was a dominant, well-loved figure in Chicago life, a venerated pa- 
triarch whose passing was sincerely mourned. By reason of a dem- 
ocratic manner, a keen human understanding and sympathy, he 
drew to him as friends men from all walks of life. Many he helped 
establish a footing on the ladder of success, many he advised and 
counselled. In business life he was the keen sagacious leader who 
might be safely followed in all things, who might be trusted in all 
things. He was a gentleman of the old-school, courtly in his man- 
ners, chivalrous and kindly in all his dealings with men. His death 
was deeply and sincerely mourned in Chicago. 

Samuel W. Allerton married (first) in Peoria, Illinois, in 1861, 
^Pamilla M. Thompson, daughter of Astor C. and Berinthia (Egle- 
ton) Thompson. Astor C. Thompson was born in Newburg, New 
York, son of Robert and Agnes (Lib by) Thompson, and of Scotch- 
Irish descent. His wife was of Huguenot ancestry. Mr. and Mrs. 
Allerton were the parents of two children : 1. Kate Eeinette, born 
June 10, 1863; married (first) the late Dr. Sidney Papin; (second) 
Hugo R. Johnstone ; their children are : i. Allerton Johnstone, 
born December 25, 1900; ii. Vanderburgh Johnstone, born Janu- 
ary 6, 1903. 2. Robert Henry, born March 20, 1873 ; succeeded his 
father in many of the latter 's business interests, and now supervises 

v his extensive property. Mr. Allerton married (second) Agnes C. 

^SThompson, sister of his first wife, on March 15, 1882. Mrs. Aller- 
ton is widely known and eminently respected in social life in Chi- 
cago, and in South Pasadena, California, between which cities she 
divides her time. On the death of her husband, Mrs. Allerton took 
over the management of the greater part of his huge interests, and 
has proved herself a business woman of extraordinary acumen and 
ability. For the handling of her business interests, Mrs. Allerton 
maintains an office in the First National Bank Building in Chicago. 
Her Chicago residence is on Astor street; she spends the summer 
months at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, at her home, "The Folly." Mrs. 
Allerton is a woman of exceptional mentality, thoroughly conver- 
sant with the business world and with the spirit of the times. She 



is deeply interested in history, heraldry, genealogy, and kindred 
subjects. On her California home in South Pasadena, Mrs. Aller- 
ton has lavished every care of a beauty-loving nature, and has in- 
dulged her hobby, the cultivation of all flowers, but more especially 
the growing of roses in infinite variety. 



Some months ago appeared in this magazine a narrative relating 
to the Hampton (Virginia) Institute, founded by General Samuel 
Chapman Armstrong, a man of noble spirit, for the education of 
Indians and Negroes. This was followed in a later issue by some 
account of famous old William and Mary College at Williamsburg, 
Virginia, whence came many of the foremost figures of the Revo- 
lutionary period, and a host of later-day prominence. In the pres- 
ent number appears the history of another educational institution, 
unique in scope and conduct, and standing out prominently as an 
exemplification of what can be accomplished through the effort of a 
single man of devoted purpose, such a rare personality as that old- 
time minister and educator, Gideon Blackburn. The College which 
he founded and which bears his name may in a large way be ac- 
cepted as a type of many institutions of learning throughout the 
country which fill a field of their own (as also do the two hereinbe- 
fore named), supplying a special need, or the needs of thousands 
of youth without means or desire to enter the greater ones. With 
possibly few exceptions, such as are thus instanced are almost en- 
tirely dependent for their support upon the tuition fees received 
from their students, and their deservingness would suggest the de- 
-strability of their being made sharers in the munificent gifts be- 
stowed from time to time by wealthy philanthropists upon educa- 
tional causes. The article to which reference is here made, from the 
pen of the Rev. Duncan J. McMillan, D. D., who has established vari- 
ous academies and colleges in the Far West, suggests a very strong 
argument along these lines. 

Also, on other pages of this magazine is told the story of a famous 
quartette of brothers who rendered service to their country during 
the War for the Union, two of them distinguishing themselves by 
unusual feats of daring 

These two general subjects point to the desirability of contribu- 
tions along similar lines. There are many educational institutions 



throughout the land the story of whose founding, or the special held 
which they occupy, would be of wide interest. On the other side, 
there are characters and incidents of the World War which should 
be committed to print before the passing away of those who are con- 
versant with the individuals and circumstances. Contributions un- 
der both these heads are invited bv the editor. 


The "Yale Review" for January has a number of most excellent 
and timely contributions, timely for the reason that they discuss 
questions growing immediately out of recent events, all out of the 
ordinary. "Germany Since the Revolution," is by Dr. Richard 
Grelling, who as the author of "J 'Accuse" became world-famous 
as the first German to publicly arraign his country for its precipita- 
tion of the World War. From this article may be quoted the follow- 
ing painful foreboding: 

The German people, so far as can be foreseen — and I am forced to 
acknowledge it with the deepest sorrow — will not awake until it is 
too late. Just as the old imperial Germany of 1914 slept through 
four years of war and awoke only at the defeat, so the republican 
Germany of to-day will slumber until the flourish of trumpets of the 
new militarism announces to it the downfall of all that has been 
painfully won by the revolution. Then will follow a Titanic combat 
between the military caste and the proletariat, wherein the great 
mass of the bourgeoisie, again as in 1918, will take no active part. 
Unhappy Germany will be devoured by an internecine Avar such as 
the world has not yet seen. Then will come the political and econ- 
omic disaster, already showing its grinning death's head, which 
will carry down with it all that is still standing. From this supreme 
misfortune may some kind fate save my people ! But, if they are 
to be saved, immediate action must be taken. 

The same number of "The Review" contains a paper by Rev. 
W. R. Inge, Dean of St. Paul's, on "Religion in England After the 
War," and which reveals some conditions that find somewhat of an 
analogy in our own country. "Women in the Election," by A. 
Maurice Low (the chief American correspondent of the London 
"Morning Post," and who attended both of the recent presidential 
nominating conventions), essays an analysis of the feminine mind 



as it displayed itself in its first great political effort in the election 
which followed. In the conclusions which he draws therefrom, he 
opines that the woman voter "will always be an uncertain element 
in politics, because she not only loves change — otherwise there 
would be no new fashions — but she will be responsive to the prompt- 
ings of her morality. . . . For woman is by nature a reformer; 
and not only is she a reformer, but she is an honest reformer, whose 
instinct is nearly always right." 

Other articles in "The Review" of special interest, but by no 
means exhausting the array, are: "The Masterful Puritan," by 
Agnes Eepplier; "Robert Louis Stevenson in Samoa," by W. E. 
Clarke; "An Unknown Poet" of two hundred and fifty-odd years 
ago, by John Drinkwater, the creator of the stage "Abraham Lin- 
coln;" "The Permanent Utility of Dialect," by Brander Matthews; 
and "The Problem of the American Negro," by Franz Boas, Pro- 
fessor of Anthropology in Columbia University, who is author of 
"The Mind of Primitive Man" and other works in this field. As 
usual, the book reviews are of great interest. 

The Harmon Genealogy, Comprising All Branches in New Eng- 
land; compiled and edited by Artemas C. Harmon, Washington, 
D. C, and published by him, 1920 ; pages 280, with ample indices ; 
$10 postpaid. 

This work is a most complete history of the Harmon family, and 
had its foundation in the initial work of a number of family his- 
torians a half century ago, and which has been compiled and added 
to by the author, who has devoted five years to his work. It com- 
prises all the New England branches, including those of Scarboro 
and York, Maine; of Springfield and Braintree, Massachusetts; and 
of more than five thousand descendants dispersed throughout the 
United States. Complete accounts are given of Col. Johnson Har- 
mon and Captain Allison Harmon, the former the famous Indian 
fighter, of York, and the latter the "Strong Man of Maine," of 
Scarboro; of Hon. Judson Harmon, formerly Governor of Ohio, 
and United States Attorney General; and of a hundred Harmons 
who served in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the War of 
the Rebellion, and the World War. It contains two Harmon coats- 
of-arms, one in four colors, and eighteen pages of photo-engravings. 
The paper is of the best quality, and the work is neatly and substan- 
tially bound in cloth, gold lettered. 



The Story of a Common Soldier; Army Life in the Civil War, 
1861-1SG5; by Leander Stillwell, late Judge of Seventh Judicial 
District, Kansas; published by himself; Erie, Kansas; pp. 278, 
with illustrations; $1.50; by mail, $1.60. 

At first glance there would seem to be no occasion for narratives 
of a war of more than half a century ago, in view of the stupendous 
conflict but recently ended. As a matter of fact, however, the lat- 
ter has recalled considerable interest in the former, and for good 
reasons — the contrasting of war instruments and war methods in 
these two widely separated periods; and also, and which is of 
deeper interest, the quest for somewhat of comprehension of the 
psychology of the War for the Union period, and that of the AA'orld 
War time. That difference there is, is evidenced from the abundant 
living verse of the period of the one, and its almost utter absence in 
the period of the other. There is nothing whatever of the World 
War time to approach the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" of the 
Northerner, or the "Maryland, My Maryland," of the Southerner, 
both stricken off at white heat at the very beginning of the former 
great struggle. 

The conditions in each of the great conflicts referred to above, 
created a soldier type of its own. The one was a volunteer, who 
offered himself; the other was a summoned man, in many instances, 
however, ill-pleased that he could not volunteer. The first and the 
greatest of the Union armies were exclusively volunteer bodies — 
that of the Potomac, under McClellan ; that of the Tennessee, under 
Grant; that of the Cumberland, under Thomas. True, the time 
came when these and later armies were added to by draft, but it was 
the soul of the volunteers of the first two war years that permeated 
and inspired those masses, and wrought out victory. These volun- 
teers came together in squads and companies from their own city 
wards and country villages; they were schoolmates and fellow- 
workmen; and, when war was on, they were familiar associates 
embarking together in another adventure. Such was impossible in 
the recent war; there were few instances where the soldier found an 
old-time friend, generally not a single casual acquaintance within 
reach. A thoughtful mind will draw from these contrasting condi- 
tions some interesting psychological speculations, but leading to an 
unanswerable question — which of the two systems will produce the 
most efficient military machine? 



Such are the thoughts which come to the mind of this reviewer 
(himself a soldier of the former time) in perusing the admirable lit- 
tle volume which stands for his text. The author makes no attempt 
at fine writing. He has written at the request of his child, and in 
such plan earnest style as would almost convince the reader that 
he was listening to a story told at the fireside by word of mouth. It 
is "a plain unvarnished tale" of the acts and thoughts of the aver- 
age man in the ranks, in a most strenuous time, and of achieve- 
ments which, if left undone, would have made impossible the great 
accomplishments of the splendid American soldier in the struggle 
but recently closed. 




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APRIL, 1921 


Valparaiso University 

By Daniel Russell Hodgdon, Sc.D., LL.D., President of 

.' Valparaiso University 


ppHROUGHOUT the United States and the greater part of 
*MJ the world are scattered thousands and thousands of men 
|fj and women who some time in their lives spent a few 
Sit years in Valparaiso University. These people are en- 
gaged in every kind of industry and profession known to the human 
race. Their relations with the rest of the population of the country 
are so varied and complex that a greater number of people who have 
never seen the institution are interested in it than the number who 
have actually attended the University. The result is that any news 
about Valparaiso University is of almost universal interest. Fif- 
teen or twenty years ago there was a great deal written on the 
unique system of keeping down expenses which w T as employed at 
Valparaiso. But in recent years the outside world has not heard 
much about the institution. The reason is that the school was so 
well established and the system was working with such perfection 
that it did not attract the attention of the average person. As soon 
as the newness of the various plans had worn off and their practic- 
ability had been amply demonstrated, the world ceased to point to 
it as a remarkable achievement, and Valparaiso University was left 
alone to pursue her great work of offering a thorough education to 
the man and woman of ordinary means, and so successful has she 
been in this work that she is now known from one end of the conti- 
nent to the other as the one place in the world where everybody has 
an equal opportunity to enter the higher activities of human devel- 
opment. During the World War, Valparaiso University suffered 
severely. The attendance began to decrease from the day that the 



first shots of the great, conflict were fired. At the opening of the 
war a large number of foreign students were in school, but the war 
called many back to Europe and Asia, while many others were com- 
pelled to leave because their relatives in the old countries could no 
longer send them the necessary money to continue. The American 
students heard the call of their country and left in even greater 

After a long struggle to maintain her position among the great 
institutions of the world, Valparaiso has been reorganized and once 
more is a subject of discussion before the people of the countiy. 
In view of these facts a sketch of its origin and its historical devel- 
opment should be interesting to all who are interested in the fate 
of our educational institutions and the part that they will play in the 

In order to understand thoroughly the development of Valparaiso 
University, it is necessary to go back to the first college that was 
located at Valparaiso. In 1859 the Northwestern Indiana Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Church founded at Valparaiso the Valparaiso 
Male and Female College. This college was of the same type as the 
average college founded by the Methodist church at that time. It 
was the purpose of the church to establish a school in every con- 
gressional district in the State of Indiana. It is not hard to see 
why the people in Valparaiso should be glad to have an institution 
of this nature grow up in the community. In 1S59 there were no 
high schools in Northern Indiana, and no higher education of any 
kind under the supervision of the Protestants. Besides these mo- 
tives, the people were eager to outdo the neighboring towns and 
cities in the rivalry of progress and expansion. 

The money by which the College was built was raised in the 
country, and the College was opened with a faculty of six and an 
attendance of about seventy. The attendance of this little school 
never reached a larger number than 325, and after eleven years of 
hard struggling it was closed. The failure of this institution has a 
great deal to do with the history of Valparaiso University. Much 
money and enthusiasm were expended on this first attempt to estab- 
lish a school of higher education at Valparaiso, and when the doors 
of the Methodist College were closed the people lost faith in such 
work and were slow to undertake another venture which could guar- 
antee no more for the community. For two years after the suspen- 



sion of the Methodist College, the building was vacant, and there 
seemed to be little hope that another institution would ever take its 

In the summer of 1873, Henry Baker Brown came to Valparaiso 
and made arrangements with the trustees of the College to open the 
Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute on a pri- 
vate basis. Mr. Brown had been teaching in the Northwestern Nor- 
mal School at Republic, Ohio, and in his experience there and also 
in his experience at Lebanon, of which institution he was a gradu- 
ate, he had learned much about the modern system of education, 
and had come to the conclusion that the kind of schools most need- 
ed in America were such institutions as would offer equal opportun- 
ity to every class of people seeking an education. He saw through- 
out the country thousands of young men and women who should 
have an opportunity to go to school, but who could never attend an 
institution of higher learning, because they did not have sufficient 
means to go to the colleges and universities already in existence. 
Urged by some of his fellow teachers at Republic, he came to Val- 
paraiso and established the school of his dreams upon the ruins of 
the college which had recently failed. 

Henry Baker Brown came to Valparaiso with nothing to put his 
plans into operation, except a vision and an untiring ambition to 
put that vision into material form. The Northern Indiana Normal 
School opened September 16, 1873, with about thirty-five students 
and five instructors. Taking the place of a recent failure, it was 
natural that most of the people of the immediate community looked 
upon the undertaking with suspicion and had little confidence in the 
enterprise. Nevertheless, it was the immediate community upon 
which Mr. Brown depended almost entirely for support. With the 
exception of a few students who followed him from Ohio, his entire 
school w T as made up of students from the vicinity of Valparaiso 
for several years. In a very short time, however, Mr. Brown had 
won the confidence of the greater part of the people in the county, 
and received their support in everything that he undertook in rela- 
tion to his school. With an attendance of 61 the first term, the 
school increased to 691 at the end of the second year. The number 
reached 1600 in 1900, and continued to grow until in 1910 the stu- 
dents of Valparaiso were numbered by the thousands, and Val- 



paraiso became known as one of the largest institutions of learning 
in the United States. 

Before proceeding with the historical development of the insti- 
tution, it might be well to examine some of the principles upon which 
the Normal School was based, and thus the more readily understand 
the spirit which made the institution flourish for more than forty 
years. Mr. Brown held that education should be practical, and that 
it should be accessible to all. He defined education as the accumula- 
tion of physical, mental and moral powers. The more of these pow- 
ers a person possessed, the greater his education. He considered 
that education is a training for active life, and that training which 
does not prepare the student for a more useful life and make him a 
better member of society, is not the training most desirable. To be 
practical, educational training must be similar to active life. If the 
student is to be taught to do a certain kind of work, he must actually 
do the work. This does not mean that Mr. Brown did not believe 
that knowledge could be acquired in school and applied in after life, 
but school life should be as much as possible like real life and should 
fit the student for the experiences, intellectual and social, which he 
should have after he had left school. Since life itself demands hard 
work through long hours each day, a training course should require 
the same if it is to accomplish the proper result. 

Under the practicality of education comes Mr. Brown's principle 
of as little interference as possible with the private life of the stu- 
dent. The average student has reached the age and stage of mental 
development where he must learn to look out for his own interests. 
He must be put upon his own responsibility and allowed, provided 
he does not injure his fellow-students or society in general, to pur- 
sue his course after his own fashions and inclinations. The student 
body is to be self-governing, conforming to only such regulations 
as the institution should deem necessary to preserve its standards. 
The accumulation of moral powers comes from study and experi- 
ence, not from petty corrections. The one condition attached to 
every right is, that the exercise of that right should in no way 
molest or interfere with others who are living within the confines 
of their own rights. In order to make education practical, courses 
must be so arranged that the student could advance according to 
his own ability, regardless of the progress of those who entered 
school when he did. He must be given the privilege of selecting his 



own subjects, and be able to begin work in any course whenever 
he desires. The free mingling with hundreds of others who have 
lived in different States and countries and who have had various 
experiences, also is a practical feature of education. 

To make education accessible to all who desired it, was not so 
easy. For the accomplishment of this, three conditions were essen- 
tial. First, education must be made cheaper. Probably the greatest 
deterrent of education is the cost of spending a long time at school. 
Expenses must be kept down as low as possible. Fraternities wera 
not recognized, because they would lend to create social distinc- 
tions, which would in turn require for their maintenance a larger 
expense. All time should be used to the greatest advantage. "Work 
should be the standard, not wealth. Board, room, tuition, and inci- 
dental expenses, should be kept at a minimum. The importance of 
keeping down expenses should by example and teaching bo em- 
phasized to such a degree that public sentiment would condemn 
needless expenditure of money, either for luxuries or for the neces- 
sities of life. The second essential of accessibility of education is, 
that the training requisite for an ordinary life-work should be given 
in less time than the usual college courses. Many people who can 
afford it are unwilling to spend four or six years in acquiring the 
training offered in the average institution of learning. The third 
essential condition is, that the requirements for entrance should not 
bar any person of average intellect and common sense from enter- 
ing a school. These were the statements which Henry Baker Brown 
made at the time when he laid the foundation of Valparaiso Uni- 
versity, and until very recently these were the fundamental prin- 
ciples upon which this remarkable and unique institution was oper- 

The Normal School began with only three departments, but it was 
not long before others were added, and this increase of departments 
continued until the Normal School was converted into Valparaiso 
College and later into Valparaiso University. The development of 
these departments is unique. There were no very distinct lines of 
demarcation between these departments, for most of the students 
in the early days of the institution were taking special work. Later 
the regular collegiate course was divided into three years. The 
first year was called Preparatory, and consisted of secondary pre- 
paratory subjects. The second year was the Scientific, and the third 



the Classic. The rule was to offer a course in any subject for which 
there was sufficient demand, provided it was possible to get a teacher 
and to make other necessary arrangements. Thus it happened that 
sooner or later nearly every subject imaginable was taught. The 
natural result of this variety of courses was the development of the 
departments which now compose the University. 

The school year was at first divided into three terms, but this was 
soon increased to four. After a few years, school was in session 
continuously, and several hundred students would remain during 
the summer vacation. Classes were formed each month in many of 
the courses, and at the beginning of every term in practically all of 
them. The school day began at G.15 o'clock in the morning and 
finished at 8.30 in the evening. The student was permitted to take 
as many subjects as he was capable of carrying, but the work was so 
heavy that even the best students seldom took more than five. 

Mr. Brown was very successful in keeping expenses at a low 
rate. For the most part, expenses during the first ten years of the 
institution were far lower than they were in other institutions dur- 
ing the same period. In 1S74 board and room was about a dollar 
and forty cents a week. In 1878 Mr. Brown furnished board and 
room for one dollar and ninety cents a week. Two years later this 
was reduced ten cents a week. After the panic of 1873 it was natur- 
al that conditions would be more favorable for an institution such 
as the Northern Indiana Normal School. Tuition was seven dollars 
a term at first, but in 1S77 this was increased to eight dollars a term. 

Henry Baker Brown had one faculty which in a large measure 
explains his success as an educator and college president. He had 
the ability to choose strong and faithful men and women as members 
of his teaching force. From the beginning he began to surround 
himself with some of the ablest teachers in the country. Profes- 
sors Bogarte, Baldwin, and many others, joined him at an early 
date and remained with him until they retired from active life. Mr. 
Brown did not choose for his teachers men who were ambitious to 
write or who aspired to high political positions and honors, but 
men who took delight in the art of teaching, men who were willing 
to devote their lives to the profession, and who were more interest- 
ed in giving help to others than in making themselves great in the 
public eye. The result of this policy was to bring to Valparaiso one 
of the strongest faculties in the country from the teaching stand- 

. I 


1 ' « I'! 5 

.":."-' , ; .,,,,. J ^..~ - >.'.&■- 




point. It was never Mr. Brown's intention to make his institution a 
teach the common man the value of education, and to send out into 
center of classical learning or of scientific research. lie held that to 
the world hundreds of teachers to spread the gospel of education, 
was a far great mission than to train men and women according to 
the old institutions of culture and classical learning. There were 
enough institutions where those seeking such training could go, but 
the great need was a place where the ordinary people could get a 
start in the educational world. 

In 1880, Mr. Brown was joined by his friend and old schoolmate, 
Oliver Perry Kinsey. Mr. Kinsey became joint owner of the Nor- 
mal School, and soon was more essential to the workings of the 
institution than any other person except Mr. Brown. Mr. Kinsey's 
great work lay in keeping down the expenses of the student and in 
perfecting the democratic spirit of the institution, which had al- 
ready reached a high degree of development. The college contin- 
ued to expand under the able leadership of these two men until it 
became one of the great schools of the United States. Opportunity 
was its great slogan, and opportunity was given to all by maintain- 
ing a democratic spirit which made it possible for the average per- 
son to attend Valparaiso without taking a spendthrift's part in 
college life. 

The name of the Normal was changed in 1900 to Valparaiso Col- 
lege, and five years later, when the Medical and Dental Schools were 
added, it became Valparaiso University. The period from 1905 to 
1912 was one of great prosperity. The enrollment for the year 1911 
was 5,551. No changes of policy were adopted during this time, 
and the practicality of the system was thoroughly demonstrated to 
the satisfaction of all who had before doubted the feasibility of such 
an institution. In 1912 Mr. Brown was forced to retire from the 
strenuous part of the work, and a greater burden fell upon Mr. Kin- 
sey. Mr. Brown died in 1917, and Mr. Kinsey continued in the work 
until 1918, when he retired and Henry Kinsey Brown became pres- 
cient of the institution. Daniel Russell Hodgdon became president in 
the summer of 1920, when the University was reorganized, with the 
final authority resting in a board of trustees. 

Valparaiso University as now reorganized has the same splendid 
aim it has had from the beginning — that of serving the community 
in the largest possible way by giving education to all who apply at 



its doors, the less fortunate, as well as the fortunate. There is a 
department and a place for every man and every woman really 
anxious to secure an education. There is no scholastic aristocracy 
here; it is a great educational democracy. No student is turned 
away if he has the desire, the courage and the perseverance, to 
undertake the work for a practical education, and to remain until he 
has accomplished his aim. 

The University slogan is "Opportunity for education for every 
one, and for every occupation." This does not mean that the stand- 
ards of any department are low, but rather that they are unusually 
high. The entrance requirements are as high and in many cases 
higher than those of the average accredited college or university. 
In addition to the standard college courses, Valparaiso maintains 
schools which prepare for them. In other words, students not qual- 
ified to enter certain courses where their aims and ambitions would 
carry them, are given an opportunity to prepare themselves to 
undertake a curriculum of study leading to the profession or voca- 
tion desired. 

It is an appalling situation when our American educational sys- 
tem as a whole does not adequately provide in our American uni- 
versities an opportunity for the thousands of men and women who, 
through misfortune and other causes, have not had an opportunity 
for an education in early life. One graduate of Valparaiso, now 
a successful business man and millionaire, applied to seventeen 
universities or colleges for entrance, but because his entrance re- 
quirements were sadly deficient he could not gain entrance, no mat- 
ter what his ambitions were. Since he was past high school age, 
he was left to shift for himself, trying to find some method to make 
up his deficiencies. While studying alone and doing his best by 
correspondence, he heard of Valparaiso University. He entered 
the preparatory department and had soon completed the necessary 
requirement for entrance to the College. His success in life testi- 
fied to the need of an institution which will accept a student regard- 
less of his qualification, and prepare him for any field of endeavor. 

When men such as this one suddenly awaken to the need of a 
better education, they often turn in vain to the great educational 
institutions. Most of these institutions have been established with 
public money in various States, and should supply the needs of 
that State, whatever the needs of education may be. Hundreds of 



correspondence schools and night schools, which have been estab- 
lished in recent years, attest to the yearning of men and women 
for a better education, and conclusively prove that there must be 
a more liberal system of education than the plan now in vogue in 
the great American Universities. It is, of course, necessary to 
maintain graduate schools and colleges for higher education, but, 
at the same time, these institutions should not specialize at the 
expense of a great number desiring to obtain a practical education. 
Vv'e have gone standardizing mad. All too often these standards 
are more destructive than constructive, so much so, in fact, that they 
have eliminated great masses of would-be students from obtaining 
an education in a profession or vocation which would have made of 
them useful citizens. 

Valparaiso University is in a class by itself, and is rapidly and 
distinctively developing into an industrial, professional and voca- 
tional institution. The University is definitely divided into twelve 
stages of educational endeavor, each one having a definite aim of 
accomplishment and standard of requirement. 

If we were to try to explain Valparaiso University's aim in a 
graphic way, we might represent the whole University as twelve 
concentric circles, the inner circle being composite society, and each 
circle from the center representing an increased number of possi- 
bilities in different fields, professionally, educationally, and indus- 
trially. Each circle or stage would represent a better training to 
accomplish the student's aim until the final circle is reached. The 
University then would meet the needs of those requiring an edu- 
cation, no matter what previous education such an individual may 
have had. A plan is being developed for a unit system whereby any 
student may obtain his education as rapidly or as slowly as he 
desires. This, also, will provide that each stage or unit of training 
be done satisfactorily. Another advantage of this unit system is 
that it prevents holding back students who have the ability to do 
work rapidly, while their fellow student might require a few more 
months or years to accomplish the same training. In other words, 
no matter what a student's previous education may have been, he 
will find a school here which will accept him any month in the year, 
and, with the training received, he will get an incentive to go on with 
his work. He may enter even as low as the first or Americanization 
stage and become inspired to advance to the highest, to graduate 



from the approved College of Engineering, Arts and Sciences, Med- 
icine, Law, Pharmacy, Agriculture, etc., etc. 

Valparaiso may be designated as a vast Workshop University, 
utilizing the industries, vocations and other resources of its own 
community, as well as those of the great Calumet district adjacent 
to it, as demonstrating laboratories to prepare men and women to 
enter the nation's industrial, vocational and professional life. It 
is not a University in the ordinary limited sense of the term, for 
it is not based on traditional lines of education, but on a practical 
service to industry and humanity. Every department aims to square 
theory with practice, and to place its students in industries and pro- 
fessions as productive factors earning a competency from the start, 
this saving the individual and the industry many years of wasted 
time and expense. 

America is fundamentally an industrial country. Its life and 
future depend upon development of great industries, backed by an 
efficient organization of foreseeing leaders. One of the great appar- 
ent needs is an educational system which will provide a purely 
industrial education. This country has reached the time when it 
should seriously consider the establishment of an Industrial Uni- 
versity where principles of psychology, economics, philosophy, 
mathematics, history, language, and all academic subjects, are 
taught from an industrial standpoint — (Industrial Psychology, 
Industrial Economics, etc.). Its laboratories should be clearing 
houses for industrial problems. Its research department must work 
hand in hand with the industrial development, and disseminate in- 
formation, as well as be ready to attack any phase of the unsolved 
problems in the industrial field. Its teachers must be men asso- 
ciated with industry from all standpoints. Its principles must be 
flexible enough to permit a constant change and enlargement as con- 
ditions change and enlarge in the work-a-day world. Such a Work 
Shop University can not afford to adopt any principle that would 
allow its laboratories to be used but a few hours daily, or to have 
any building or plant, class room or lecture hall, that permitted an 
hour of the day to go to waste. Efficiency, economy and constant use 
of equipment is the keynote of industry. Students must see the 
same principle worked out in the university. In a few words, its 
basic principle must be industrial efficiency. 

It is not necessary to enlarge upon the fact that the average uni- 



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versity teaches these subjects as purely academic, and that no great 
effort has been made to educate or train men to think in the terms 
of America's great industrial pursuits. Efficient, clear-thinking, 
reasonable, and logical leaders, are needed to inspire future confi- 
dence in the development of our nation. Destructive philosophy 
has caused much present day unrest and inefficiency among the in- 
dustrial masses. 

From an industrial standpoint, it would be well to analyze the 
average college graduate as he enters industry. He is about 75 
per cent, learned, about 10 per cent, educated. He has about 5 per 
cent, or less business ability, and often not more than 1 per cent, of 
adaptability. He is only 5 per cent, real student, and often his judg- 
ment and ability to be selective is far below what he should be. This 
does not take into consideration the student's personality, which 
may cause him to rise quickly and efficiently above the elements that 
would otherwise prevent his acquiring a better position in his par- 
ticular field. Many an industrial man has remarked that the aver- 
age college graduate is of very little use to him for the first two 
years. This is a reflection upon any educational system which turns 
out a young man so poorly prepared as to require two years train- 
ing to become efficient after receiving a college degree. 

The school that gives information purely because its curriculum 
has been selected on the basis of "this is what the student ought to 
know, rather than what the student requires to live better in the 
world," is failing. The requirements of a good practical education 
are not what a student "ought to know," but rather what a man 
should attain in order to take his place among men of the present 
day when he must think in terms of solving problems as they arise 
and make decisions in confident terms of "yes" or "no." The 
average college course for industry may be stated somewhat in the 
language of an educator who gave the following formula : Take 30 
parts of desiccated mathematics and grind well with 20 parts of 
pure abstraction. When thoroughly mixed, stir in 10 parts of accur- 
ate measurements, technical manipulations and percentage of error. 
Let definitions of the undefinable, some philosophy, psychology and 
history (which has little, if anything to do with helping to solve 
industrial problems), and add about one part of real education. 
Such a solution as this must be carefully corked in college examina- 
tion bottles, since it will spoil quickly when exposed to the fresh 
air and sunshine of the real work-a-day world about it. 



The aim and purpose of the new Valparaiso University is to make 
responsible citizens who are of immediate practical value in our 
economic life. They will answer in a practical way the need for 
trained, loyal men and women, in every trade and profession. Its 
keynote is " loyalty to industry." It aims to Americanize home 
industry, and thus act to check disrupting radical forces in our econ- 
omic and social life. Its students are practical, producing, econ- 
omic features in industry from the day they enter the course. When 
the training offered is completed, every student will already be 
established at reasonable and larger pay because of the constant 
alternating or practical experience with the theoretical training 
necessary to get the fullest understanding of his work. The stu- 
dent graduated by Valparaiso University will be an educated man 
capable of accomplishing things, and not an impractical, learned 
man capable merely of theorizing, hence saving great wastes now 
permitted in the traditional systems of education characteristic of 
the last generation instead of this. The University aims to supply 
industry with experienced, responsible, trained men and women, 
whether it be in the factory, in the home, in the store, in the office, 
or in the professions. Such a training tends to substitute in these 
strenuous days, industrial health and rest for industrial sickness 
and unrest. 

Since the war, it is recognized more than ever before that we 
have reached that stage in our educational development where the 
value of making a student a productive capable citizen with a nor- 
mal earning capacity, rather than a student merely seeking infor- 
mation for citizenship, is realized. Mature students as well as 
younger persons must have their desires for higher occupational 
education met by an opportunity to produce things having a real 
and immediate market value. Increased earning capacity, success 
and satisfaction in life, comes from all-around thorough prepara- 
tion and fitness for service. People who have this advantage live 
happier and are more contented, and are more appreciative of our 
government, of its institutions, and of the community conditions 
under which they live. It matters not to what field we turn, we find 
that the business man, the professional man, the engineer, and the 
master of industry, demand that education shall function directly 
and immediately in the lives of those who receive it. 

Much waste has been going on under the apparent excuse that 



what was being taught, was developing a high mental capacity. We 
have learned to recognize that all men are not born with the same 
desires, ambitions and possibilities. Each one has his own prob- 
lems, and each one must solve his problems in a practical way and 
in a way useful to himself. The great aim of education is to give 
the man with initiative and intelligence a training which will allow 
him to develop into a master. It is the duty of education to fur- 
nish an opportunity for the man without the keen initiative of his 
fellowmen, to serve the greater interests of his community, and 
make of him a healthy citizen ; to train the man who has the mental 
capacity to be a leader, that he may take an impartial view of soci- 
ety; to educate the world to what the relations of industry, com- 
merce and society mean in the development of the race; and to give 
the man with ability a fair opportunity to use his genius with just 
and fair compensation, that he may create for others of less ability 
and opportunity to become workers, servants of the community, 
happy and contented because of their position in life. 

The purpose of education today is, not to raise all men to one 
level, but to give the man with initiative an opportunity to develop ; 
to train the man who does not have great potential ability, into a 
contented citizen, healthy in mind and body. It should give an 
opportunity for the genius to develop that he may be of service to 
society. It should offer possibilities for the masters of industry to 
create opportunities for those of less ability to become useful ser- 
vants for the community. There is a vast difference between a 
learned man and an educated man. Education prepares men to 
solve vital problems. Education functions in daily activities. We 
have no time to waste on anything but the vital problems surround- 
ing us. An educated man can put to practice what he has ; a 
learned man theorizes. 

Valparaiso University has caught a vision of serving the Amer- 
ican student as the greatest Industrial and Vocational University 
in the country, through its unique system of education and with 
its slogan, "An opportunity for everyone to get an education." In- 
deed, the fulfillment of the adage that "this is the twilight of poets 
and the high noon of practical men," is here. 


Alexander Hamilton as a Promoter 

By Charles A. Shriner, Patersox, New Jersey 

URIXG the Revolution, when British. cruisers blockaded 
American ports, the colonies were thrown upon their 
own resources, and there was a considerable develop- 
ment of household industries, such as weaving- cloth and 
making hats and shoes. The leading men of the day urged more 
attention to the subject and the newspapers occasionally advocated 
the same course. Still, few or none appeared to realize that Amer- 
ica could ever be truly independent until she lived upon her own 
productions, and many doubted the expediency or practicability of 
efforts in that direction. 

Even the long-headed Franklin was of the opinion, so late as 
1768, that manufactures were not especially desirable, except as a 
means of utilizing the spare time of the children and servants of 
farmers, although in the same letter he gave utterance to a bit of 
philosophy which lies at the successful locating of manufacturing 
establishments: Manufactures ''may be made cheaper where the 
provisions grow and the mouths will go to the meat." But in 1760 
he was of the opinion that it would take "some centuries" to popu- 
late the country as far west as the Mississippi, and to the St. Law- 
rence and the lakes on the north, and declared: "Our present col- 
onies will not, during the period we have mentioned, find them- 
selves in a condition to manufacture, even for their own inhabitants, 
to any considerable degree, much less for those who are settling be- 
hind them." 

In a letter to Benjamin Franklin, in 17S0, John Adams wrote: 
"America will not make manufactures enough for her own con- 
sumption these thousand years." And again, in a letter to an 
Amsterdam gentleman, he says : "The principal interest of America 

Editor's Note — These pages are taken from "History of Paterson and Its Environs." 
by William Nelson and Charles A. Shriner ; recently out of press. (Lewis Historical 
Publishing Co., New York and Chicago). 





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for many centuries to come will be landed, and her chief occupation 
agriculture. Manufactures and commerce will be but secondary 
objects, and always subservient to the other. America will be the 
country to produce raw materials for the manufacturers 
and its commerce can never increase but in a certain proportion to 
its agriculture, until its whole territory of land is- filled up with 
inhabitants, which will not be in some hundreds of years." Mr. 
Adams was no prophet, to foresee that within a century after he 
wrote the number of persons engaged in manufacture in America 
would be more than twice the entire population at the time of the 
Revolution, and nearly equal to the number engaged in agriculture. 

Political independence having been achieved, the American people 
set about gaining an industrial independence. The young nation 
had no credit abroad, and that fact, bewailed at the time as a public 
misfortune, stimulated them to make for themselves what they could 
no longer buy abroad, so that the apparent misfortune proved a 
benefit. While "Washington thus perceived the rift of sunshine in 
the cloud of adversity, and was gratified at the progress that had 
been made in the "useful arts," he inclined to Franklin's view, that 
manufactures might be promoted only "by women, children and 
others, without taking the really necessary hand from tilling the 
earth," as he "would not force the introduction of manufactures by 
extravagant encouragements and to the prejudice of agriculture." 
When he was inaugurated President, in April, 1789, it was thought 
worthy of remark in the newspapers of the day that he wore "a 
suit of crow-colored broadcloth, of the finest American manufac- 
ture," as an incentive to others to patronize home industries. This 
was doubtless the "homespun broadcloth of the Hartford fabric," 
which he had ordered through General Knox. 

But it was through the earnest efforts of Alexander Hamilton 
more than any other man, that the national importance of the sub- 
ject was impressed upon Congress, and in January, 1790, the House 
of Representatives adopted a resolution calling upon him as Secre- 
tary of the Treasury to report as to the means of promoting such 
manufactures as would tend to render the United States indepen- 
dent of foreign nations, "particularly for essential and military 
supplies." The inquiry was considered of such doubtful propriety 
that it was based on the plea of "military necessity," it will be ob- 



Hamilton's famous "report on manufactures," submitted to Con- 
gress, December 5, 1791, is still regarded as one of the ablest 
treatises on the subject of government encouragement of manufac- 
tures ever written. It begins with the cautious remark: "The 
expediency of encouraging manufactures in the United States, which 
was, not long since, deemed very questionable, appears at this time 
to be pretty generally admitted." Hamilton's writings do not show 
that he had ever before given much attention to the subject of 
domestic manufactures as an essential factor of national prosperity. 
But it is evident that the subject soon grew upon him, for he treats 
it exhaustively. 

The investigations by Hamilton led to a practical result, upon 
which none of his biographers have touched, although it illustrates 
in a singular degree the great financial secretary's ability to handle 
practical questions quite as well as to write brilliantly upon political 
and economic problems. Indeed, it is one of the most interesting epi- 
sodes in his career. To New Jersey it has, moreover, a peculiar 
local interest. 

In the report to which reference has been made, Hamilton speaks 
with special emphasis of the practicability of extensively manufac- 
turing cotton in the United States, and adds this important bit of 
information: "It may be announced that a society is forming, with 
a capital which is expected to be extended to at least half a million 
dollars, on behalf of which measures are already in train for prose- 
cuting, on a large scale, the making and printing of cotton goods." 
For the better encouragement of the cotton manufacture he recom- 
mended the repeal of the duty on raw cotton, the granting of a 
bounty on cotton manufactured in this country, and the importa- 
tion of "artisans and manufacturers in particular branches of 
extraordinary importance." Evidently having in view the interests 
of the new societ}", be prudently remarks, "that any bounty which 
may be applied to the manufacture of any article, cannot with safety 
extend beyond those manufactories at which the making of the 
article is a regular trade." 

There is no doubt that the sanguine Secretary of the Treasury be- 
lieved that he had conceived a project destined to be of incalculable 
benefit to the country. Too apt to think that great schemes for the 
public good could only be carried out successfully by government 
aid, there is reason to believe that he had in his mind's eye another 

1 20 


indispensable undertaking in the shape of a grand national manu- 
factory, where should be gathered together the most skilled artisans 
of the whole world, under whose trained eyes and hands should be 
produced all the supplies, "particularly of a military nature," need- 
ed to make this country independent. Such an enterprise, backed up 
by the government, and perhaps receiving pecuniary aid in the way 
of bounties from the Federal treasury, could hardly fail of being a 
great success in every sense, both for the public good, and for the 
private gain of those who might invest in it. With the prestige of 
the great Secretary of the Treasury, with the prospect of govern- 
ment aid, and, perhaps with much patriotism, many of the leading 
moneyed men of the day readily engaged in the enterprise. 

With much address the newspapers were enlisted in support of 
the enterprise, and the New York, New Jersey and Philadelphia 
gazettes of the day teem with articles on the subject of the "New 
National Manufactory," written or inspired by the enthusiastic 
Secretary of the Treasury. He shrewdly gave out that the Society's 
works were to be located in either of the three States of New York, 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, whereby he interested capitalists of 
New York and Philadelphia in the project. But all the while, as is 
shown by his published correspondence, he had the Passaic Falls in 
view as the future manufacturing centre of America. 

Something like $100,000 having been subscribed towards the capi- 
tal stock of the new company, application was made to the Legisla- 
ture of New Jersey for leave to introduce a bill incorporating "The 
Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures," which was granted. 
The charter, already prepared, was promptly introduced and press- 
ed to passage. While there is no record of the fact, it has come 
down as a tradition from the earliest times of the Society that the 
act of incorporation was drafted by Alexander Hamilton himself. 
Of this there has never been any doubt among the officers of the Soci- 
ety, and, indeed, a careful examination of the document itself, with 
a knowledge of Hamilton's interests in the Society, will readily per- 
suade any one of the inherent probability of the claim. 

The charter contains some peculiar features, such as no Legisla- 
ture would dream of granting in these days; but, after all, the 
special privileges granted proved to be of little value, and, indeed, 
have never been of much importance to the Society. The capital 
stock was limited to $1,000,000, in shares of $100 each. All the 



property of the Society was exempted from all taxation for ten 
years, and thereafter from all but State taxes, an exemption which 
has been materially curtailed by the courts. "All artificers, or man- 
ufacturers in the immediate service of the said Society, shall be free 
and exempt from all poll and capitation taxes; and taxes on their 
respective faculties and occupations." Subscriptions to the stock 
might be made in United States bonds, in which case a register of 
the same should be kept on the books of the United States Treasury ; 
or in stock of the Bank of the United States. The Society was 
to be managed by thirteen directors, chosen by the stockholders in 
the usual way, and the directors were to elect from among them- 
selves a governor and deputy governor. "The United States, or any 
State, which shall subscribe for not less than one hundred shares, 
may appoint a commissioner, who shall have a right at all times to 
inspect the proceedings of the corporation, and the state of its 
affairs. " The provisions, so far as they pertain to corporations 
generally, evidently follow English precedents. It should be borne 
in mind that this was the first charter of incorporation of a private 
company enacted by the New Jersey Legislature. It may be ques- 
tioned whether there was an incorporated manufacturing company 
in the United States at the time. 

In Hamilton's report, already quoted from, he refers to "the 
great progress which has been of late made in opening canals" in 
Great Britain, as having "been a benefit to the manufacturers of 
that kingdom." His active mind at once grasped all the possibilities 
in thus developing internal navigation in the United States and that 
feature appears prominently in the charter of the Society, nearly 
one-third of the document being taken up in conferring the necessary 
powers to construct, regulate and navigate canals, which were to 
be public highways, authority being given to exercise the right of 
eminent domain in the furtherance of this great public work, and to 
open and clear the channels of rivers and to take any other water 
courses needed for the purpose. Most of these provisions have 
since been embraced in every railroad and canal charter granted by 
the State. 

Having evidently in view the recent legislation regarding the 
location of the Federal City, as it was called, Hamilton next pro- 
vides in this remarkable charter for the incorporation of a tract 
equivalent to six miles square, being the territory within which the 



Society might establish its manufactory, the Society to take the 
initiative and survey the territory, which, unless objected to by a 
majority of the taxpayers within sixty days after public notice, 
should become incorporated as "The Corporation of the Town of 
Paterson." The government of the town was modelled generally 
after the charter of New York, granted in 1730, and still in force in 
1791, but with some peculiar features unmistakably Hamilton's 
own. The government was to be vested in a mayor, recorder, twelve 
aldermen and twelve assistants, and a town clerk, who were to be 
appointed by the Legislature in joint meeting, no limit being fixed 
to their terms of office, which is quite in consonance with Hamil- 
ton's well-known views regarding official tenure of office. The 
mayor, recorder, aldermen and assistants were given power to 
"make such by-laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with the laws and constitution of the United States, or of this 
State, as to them shall appear necessary and beneficial to the good 
government of the said district, and the same to put in execution, 
revoke, alter and make anew, as occasion shall require." The 
boldness and comprehensiveness with which the powers of the 
municiioality are defined evince a master mind, that dared sweep 
aside the tautology and petty restrictions with which municipalities 
always had been and ever have been tied up by the superior author- 
ity. Moreover, in this same body was vested the appointment of 
such other officers as they might think necessary, who should hold 
office until the appointment of their successors. The freeholders 
of the- town were authorized to elect annually a sheriff and coroner. 
Assessors, collectors and overseers of the poor were to be elected in 
like manner. As in New York, the mayor, recorder, aldermen and 
assistants were given the powers of justices of the peace, and auth- 
orized to hold "a court of quarter sessions of the peace of the town 
of Paterson," four times in each year, with special sessions if 
necessary; also to hold a monthly court of common pleas, the town 
clerk being clerk of both courts. "All artificers and manufac- 
turers within the said district, in the immediate service of the soci- 
ety," were "exempt from all military duty, except in cases of actual 
invasion or imminent danger." Such are the leading features of 
this remarkable charter as it passed the New Jersey Legislature on 
November 22, 1791. The town government never became an accom- 
plished fact. 



It would be interesting to have a report of the debates on this bill 
in the Legislature. That it met with fierce opposition and hostile 
criticism is certain — partly because members did not believe in 
encouraging American manufactures, partly because they consid- 
ered the powers asked for extraordinary, somewhat because of po- 
litical animosity towards Hamilton and his friends interested in the 
project, and largely because of a jealousy lest other than their own 
sections of the State should derive the benefits contemplated by 
the enterprise. Two of the most amusing objections to the charter 
were urged by a gentleman from Middlesex county in a letter to a 
friend in the Legislature. He thought the capital proposed alto- 
gether too large — one million dollars — a sum, he said, equal to the 
combined capital invested in American manufactures at that time; 
■ by authorizing a single corporation to invest so much capital, it 
would give them a monopoly of the manufactures of the country, 
and would ruin the mechanics everywhere. Then, again, he urged 
there was that general power to make canals. Suppose the Society 
should think iit, as some lunatic had actually proposed, to construct 
a canal from Earitan bay to the Delaware river, what would become 
of it? All the fertile farms in that section would be ruined, by 
being cut in two, and the farmers would be put to great inconveni- 
ence to get from one part of their bisected farms to the other; 
orchards would be destroyed and there would be general devasta- 
tion. Forty years afterwards that very canal was constructed, 
although not by the Society, but followed by none of the direful 
consequences predicted. 

The charter having passed, it was decided to name the town 
after William Paterson, then governor of the State. YvTQiani Pat- 
erson was a native of the North of Ireland and came to this country 
in 1745, when he was two years of age. The family lived at Trenton, 
then at Princeton and afterwards at Somerville. Paterson, having 
been graduated from Princeton in 1763, studied law with Richard 
Stockton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
In 1775 he was elected to the Provincial Congress and chosen secre- 
tary. In the following year he was appointed Attorney-General, 
but resigned in 1783. He was one of the first United States Sen- 
ators from New Jersey and was elected Governor of the State in 
1790. In 1793 Washington appointed him to be one of the justices 



1 ^^fe# 



of the Supreme Court of the United States. He died at Albany, 
New York, September 9, 1806. 

Hamilton attended meetings of the board at Newark on May 16 
and 17, 1792, when it was agreed to limit the choice for a seat for manu- 
facturing to the Passaic, Earitan and Delaware rivers. On May 18, 
Hamilton also being present, it was unanimously resolved "that the 
town of Paterson be located upon the waters of the River Passaick 
at a distance not more than six miles from the same on each or either 
side thereof between the seat of Mr. Isaac Gouverneur near the town 
of Newark and Chatham Bridge. That Mr. Low, Mr. Bayard and 
Mr. Boudinot, or any two of them, be and they are hereby author- 
ized to locate the said town within the limits in the foregoing reso- 
lution and to make purchases of such lands as they shall deem 
requisite for the purposes of the Society; and to employ such sur- 
veyor and other persons under them as they shall deem proper 
and necessary." 

At a meeting held on July 4, 1792, at the house of Abraham God- 
win at the Great Falls, "the committee appointed for the purpose of 
fixing upon a proper place on the waters of the Passaick for the 
seat of the factory, for fixing the town of Paterson and making the 
necessary purchases of land, reported that it had purchased and paid 
for the various tracts of land constituting the township of Pater- 

The Society had bought about seven hundred acres of land above 
and below the Falls, and the digging of a raceway was soon begun. 
For engineer, Major Charles Pierre L 'Enfant, a gallant and accom- 
plished officer, who had come over with the French army under La- 
fayette, was selected. He was a friend of Hamilton. He had just 
mapped out the new National Capital, for which task he had been 
chosen by Washington, but owing to a dispute with the commis- 
sioners he had relinquished his position there. Coming to Pater- 
Bon, his fertile imagination and sanguine temperament led him to 
conceive the plan of a magnificent city, which, it was announced in 
one of the daily prints, "far surpasses anything of the kind yet seen 
in this countr} 7 ." It seems to have been his intention to open up an 
air line road from Newark to Paterson, and at the latter city to lay 
out a series of splendid avenues radiating from what was after- 



wards known as Colt's hill, on Main, Grand and Ward streets, as a 
common centre. It is hardly necesary to say that this grand scheme 
never got beyond the paper stage. 

The newspapers of the day speak in the most enthusiastic terms 
of- the grand prospects of the "National Manufactory," where they 
fondly believed would grow up a great city which would supply 
the whole country with manufactures. A prospectus was issued, 
filling three closely printed columns, detailing the industries that 
were to be carried on at the new town. These included cotton spin- 
ning, the weaving and printing of calico, the making of woolens and 
cassimeres, paper for books and for walls, hats of straw and felt, 
shoes and leather goods generally, carriages, pottery of all kinds, 
and bricks ; iron pots, bars, steel buttons, etc. The paper bears all 
the signs of Hamilton's comprehensive mind. 

The popular anticipations were probably not exaggerated in this 
advertisement of a farm for sale in the neighborhood in 1792 : 
""Whereas, by a moderate calculation, 20,000 persons will be em- 
ployed in the manufactory at the town of Paterson ; and it may also 
be reasonably expected that many thousand persons will, contem- 
plating the rising importance of that town, settle in or near the 
same, which will afford a ready market for all surplusage products, 
transportation of which, from the waters of the Passaic and a very 
level road, will be easy and convenient, therefore, the prospect of 
the above land increasing in value, from this circumstance, is by no 
means inconsiderable." 

To all these gorgeous dreams there is a ludicrous contrast: The 
governor of the Society, whose wealth and financial ability had 
been largely counted upon to carry the project to a successful issue, 
was at this time languishing in jail for debt, having been ruined by 
a sudden panic in New York. Of the million dollars of capital 
authorized, only about $60,000 had been paid in by the original 
contributors. Hamilton had to use his influence as Secretary of the 
Treasury to secure a loan of $5,000 for the Society, the application 
being made to a bank in New York enjoying valuable privileges 
from the Treasury Department. "Writing confidentially to the cash- 
ier of this bank, to urge the granting of the loan, he significantly 
adds: "To you, my dear sir, I will not scruple to say, in confidence, 
that the Bank of New York shall suffer no diminution of its pecun- 
iary facilities from any accommodation it may afford to the Society 



in question." No wonder the directors of the Society regarded him 
as the father of the enterprise. Elisha Boudinot, writing to him 
when the affairs of the concern were still in a chaotic state, said: 
"Do not let anything draw your attention from this great object, 
but look forward to those tranquil days when this child will be a 
Hercules, you sitting on the beautiful and tranquil banks of the 
Passaic, enjoying the fruits of your labor." 

On October 12, Nicholas Low was elected governor and John 
Bayard deputy governor. At the same meeting John Campbell, of 
Philadelphia, and Michael Trappal, oil' ered to enter into negotiations 
for establishing the manufacture of stockings in Paterson, but the 
directors did not take a favorable view of the proposition. 

Hamilton was now more than occupied in repelling the attacks of 
his enemies in and out of Congress. Duer's failure undoubtedly 
affected him with an unpleasant sense of partial responsibility for 
his selection to be the trusted governor of the Society. Major L 'En- 
fant, whom he had recommended for engineer, bade fair to ruin 
the enterprise by the grandeur of his projects, one of which was to 
divert the Passaic river into a magnificent aqueduct of stone, sup- 
ported on arches of masonry, from the Passaic Falls to the head of 
navigation, where Passaic now stands, a distance of seven miles, 
•with mills erected along the aqueduct or raceway — a scheme that 
would have absorbed more money than was invested in all the man- 
ufacturing establishments in America at that time. In Februar} r , 
1793, the brilliant Frenchman was virtually superseded by Peter 
Colt, Treasurer of the State of Connecticut, a practical business 
man, familiar with finance. Under his superintendence a raceway 
was constructed, with the least possible cost, to secure immediate 
results. The witty Thomas Moore, the Irish poet, once had an 
opportunity of witnessing Mr. Colt's great enery in driving men, 
and on his return to England used to tell, with gusto, how Mr. Colt 
once kicked a lazy Irishman who was digging in one of the canals. 
Pat rubbed the afflicted part with a grimace, and exclaimed: "Be 
jabbers, an' if yez kick like that when ye 're but a Colt, what '11 ye do 
when yez get to be a horse?" 

In February, 1793, it was agreed to rent to John Campbell, of 
Philadelphia, sufficient space in the mill about to be erected, for the 
introduction of the manufacture of stockings, and the superinten- 
dent was authorized to accommodate other intending manufacturers 
in a similar manner. 



Before cotton spinning was begun in the large mill, cotton was 
spun in a small temporary structure, the power being supplied by 
oxen, from which the building obtained its name as the "Bull Mill." 
In the meantime the building of the larger mill progressed; it was 
not occupied until the following year. The mill stood on Mill street 
— hence the name of the street— north of Market, and was four sto- 
ries high, with a high basement. A large bell in the cupola summoned 
the operatives to work. When in full operation there were four 
carders, four roving billies, four stubbing machines, twenty-five 
spinning jennies and sixty single looms. The bleaching and print- 
ing works stood on what is now Bridge street, the bleach house being 
of frame, three stories high. Much of the machinery was imported, 
for there was hardly a machine shop in America. The workmen to 
set up the machinery, and the hands to operate it, were brought 
from Europe. Some of the iron and brass castings were brought, 
from Wilmington, Delaware, the nearest source of supplies for 
such articles. Added to all these difficulties, the sum of $50,000, sent 
abroad for the purchase of materials for manufacture, was lost 
through the dishonesty of the agent entrusted therewith. Foreign 
manufacturers began to flood the markets with the goods the Society 
had undertaken to produce. 

The name of Alexander Hamilton appears as a director for the 
first time at a meeting of the directors held on November 24, 1795. 
The subject of the lottery again bobbed up, the minutes reporting: 
"The superintendents of the lottery informing the board that the 
scheme offered to the public was too extensive and that they could 
not sell a sufficient number of tickets to warrant the drawing of the 
lottery — and the managers at the same time submitting to the board 
a scheme for raising only $6,667.50, and the board taking the same 
into serious consideration, it is resolved that the first scheme be 
given up, that the managers be directed to carry the scheme now 
proposed into immediate execution, and that they be authorized 
to return the monies to all those who have paid for tickets in the first 
scheme where the holders do not choose to renew their tickets in 
the present scheme, and that the drawing of said lottery commence 
on the first Monday in February next at Newark." The lottery 
scheme proved a failure, a financial loss to the society. 



On April 5, 1814, the governor reported the Society and Pat- 
erson to be in flourishing condition, the Society by means of hav- 
ing disposed of considerable real estate, Paterson by an increase in 
population and manufactures. It was then that Roswell L. Colt, 
"the greatest of all the Colts," as he is frequently termed, appeared 
on the scene, for he was appointed agent of the Society. At the next 
meeting he was elected governor, and he continued in that capacity 
for many years, although for some time the office was filed by Peter 
Colt, Eoswell L. serving as deputy governor. 

Roswell L. Colt died in 1856, since which time the office of gover- 
nor of the Society has been held by the following: 1856, Morgan G. 
Colt; 1869, DeGrasse B. Fowler; 1877, Boudinot Colt; 1895, Gar- 
ret A. Hobart; 1900, William Barbour; 1911, E. LeB. Gardner. 

The Colt family, various members of which were more or less 
prominent in the early history of Paterson, were the descendants 
of some of the earliest settlers in this country. Peter, a native of 
Lyme, Connecticut, had a command in Aaron Burr's expedition to 
Canada, and was subsequently an aide to General Worcester. When 
the French under Lafayette and subsequently under Rochambeau 
came to this country, Peter Colt's knowledge of the French language 
was on frequent occasions made use of by General Washington in 
his intercourse with French officers. He was stationed with the 
French forces at the surrender of Cornwallis. After the war, re- 
turning to Connecticut, he was chosen treasurer of that State, and 
it was while holding that office that he was induced to come to Pater- 
son at the solicitation of Dr. Elias Boudinot, one of the founders of 
the Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, the two men hav- 
ing met some years previous at Boonton, New Jersey. 

John Colt was a son of Peter, and shared in his father's labors. 
His son, E. Boudinot Colt, was engaged in the manufacture of duck 
in the Duck Mill on Van Houten street and the Essex Mill on Mill 
street, as late as 1865, the output of his looms enjoying a nation- 
wide reputation on account of their superiority. 

Samuel Colt, a cousin of the foregoing, was born in Hartford, 
Connecticut, July 19, 1814, and died there January 10, 1862. In 1827 
he ran away from school and shipped as a boy before the mast on a 
voyage to the East Indies. While so employed he conceived the idea 
of the revolving firearm which was to make his name familiar in all 
parts of the habitable globe. Upon his return home he was employ- 



ed in the bleaching and dyeing department of his father's cotton 
mill, and was taught chemistry by the superintendent, William T. 
Smith. After pursuing his studies for some time, he delivered lec- 
tures on chemistry in the United States and British America under 
the name of Dr. Coult. Having accumulated a few hundred dollars, 
he perfected a model of a revolving firearm he had made in 1829, and 
secured a patent in 1835. In the same year he formed the Patent 
Arms Company with a capital of $300,000, and began the manufac- 
ture of revolvers in a building in Paterson known to the present day 
as the Gun Mill. Army officers regarded the invention with dis- 
trust, but the advantages of the weapon were shown in the Seminole 
War in Florida, and the employees of the Gun Mill were working 
overtime for some months. With the end of the Seminole War came 
a cessation of orders, and in 1812 the company suspended opera- 
tions. In 1817 General Taylor demanded from the United States 
Ordnance Department a supply of Colt's revolvers, and the inven- 
tor was ordered to supply one thousand, the price fixed being $28,- 
000. Colt had sold the last of his revolvers to an Indian trader, 
and was compelled to make a new model to fill the order. The thous- 
and revolvers supplied to General Taylor were made in Whitney- 
ville, Connecticut, after which the factory was removed to Hart- 

Eoswell L. Colt, "the greatest of all the Colts," as far as Colt 
activities in Paterson are concerned, was the younger son of Peter 
Colt. Early in life he acquired considerable interests in the ship- 
ping trade. In the course of this business he became acquainted 
with Robert Oliver, of Baltimore, one of the wealthiest men in the 
country, and shortly afterwards married his daughter. After a 
number of years residence in Connecticut and subsequently in New 
York City, Mr. Colt determined to remove to Paterson. He looked 
the ground over, and then borrowed $150,000 from his father-in- 
law, with which he acquired real estate holdings in what is at present 
day Paterson and its vicinity. His family had increased by the 
addition of ten sons and daughters, and the question arose as to a 
proper home for all. Mr. Colt favored the small hill on Main street, 
between Grand and Ward, the. same point which Major L 'Enfant 
had looked upon as the proper central point for Paterson, from 
which streets and avenues were to radiate or circle. Mrs. Colt 
objected to this selection, expressing a decided preference for the 



top of Garret Mountain, from which a magnificent view could be had 
of all the surrounding country. 

Mr. Colt had in the meantime carried out his original plan for a 
residence. For many months numerous laborers were employed 
carting soil to the small sandhill which formed the nucleus of what 
was in after years known as Colt's Hill. Trees and shrubbery were 
removed from the mountain, and exotic plants of all kinds were 
crowded into the spacious hothouses. On the plateau on the top, 
a large mansion was erected in the colonial style, and for years 
the mansion rivalled in social affairs the best known homes in New 
York, the large stocks of foreign wines in the cellar doing their 
share towards promoting sociability. Nearly all the prominent 
men of the day at some time or other were the guests of Koswell L. 
Colt. Among the more frequent visitors was Daniel Webster, who 
in one of his letters speaks in enthusiastic terms of the present of a 
fine bull he had received from Mr. Colt. There is an interesting 
story — with no better foundation, however, than tradition — con- 
nected with what followed one of Webster's visits. Webster had 
tarried longer than had been expected in the genial companionship 
of Eoswell L. Colt, and it was late when he arrived in New York, 
where he had promised to escort Mrs. Webster to Castle Garden to 
attend a concert in which Jenny Lind was the bright particular star. 
But Webster got there with Mrs. Webster. When Jenny Lind sang 
"The Star Spangled Banner," Webster's enthusiastic patriotism 
asserted itself. He arose in his seat and joined in the chorus. Re- 
monstrances on the part of Mrs. Webster were not heeded. Web- 
ster urged the audience to join him, which they did, all rising in 
their seats. It is a fond belief deeply rooted in the hearts of many 
people of Paterson and elsewhere that it was this occasion which es- 
tablished the custom of audiences rising at the rendition of the 
national hymn and joining in the chorus. 

The mansion on Colt's Hill was for many years the home of Ros- 
well L. Colt and his four children — Thomas, Eoswell, Jr., Morgan 
G. and Julia, the last named subsequently the wife of DeGrasse B. 
Fowler. During all these years, Eoswell L. Colt practically directed 
the future of Paterson. His name is attached to numerous deeds 
of real estate donated for churches, cemeteries and educational pur- 
poses ; although his principles were thoroughly democratic, he ruled 
Paterson as an autocrat, for little was done without his consent and 
assistance and frequently his initiative. 



A photograph of Colt's Hill, from which was made the accom- 
panying illustration, was taken from the top of St. John's Catholic 
Church, when that edifice was in course of construction. Two roads 
led to the mansion, one from what is now DeGrasse street, the other 
from the corner of Main and Ward streets; the dwelling of the 
keeper and the hothouses show in the illustration. The building, 
of brown sandstone from the Little Falls quarries, still stands on the 
corner of Main and Ward streets; the hill itself and the other 
buildings belong to the past. 

In the circle in the illustration appear two statues, and these are 
also visible in the main picture ; and from a date shortly after the 
completion of the mansion to the day when Colt's Hill was razed 
in order that it might no longer retard the march of improvement, 
these statues stood guard, one on each side of the main entrance to 
the building. The history of these statues is one of interest. James 
Thorn was born near the birthplace of Robert Burns, April 19, 1802. 
His parents were poor, and he was set to work in a factory when he 
was a mere child. He was fond of whittling objects out of wood and, 
encouraged by the approbation of his fellows, essayed some carving 
in stone. His talent having been recognized, he was induced to 
attempt a heroic statue of "Tam O'Shanter," an aged employee 
in the factory serving as a model. The committee in charge of the 
erection of the Burns monument at Alloway induced him to make a 
companion piece, a statue of "Soutcr Johnnie." The committee 
exhibited the statues through Scotland, England and Ireland, net- 
ting the sum of £2,000, of which Thorn received one-half. In a short 
time Thorn had orders for sixteen replicas of the two statues, and 
soon the population of the British Isles was considerably increased 
by numerous editions of "Tams and Johnnies" in wood, plaster and 
various kinds of metals. Thom tried his hand at other subjects, but 
the result seemed to indicate that he had exhausted the fertility of 
his genius by his productions of the Burns characters. A pair of 
the statues had been on exhibition for some months in England, 
when the agent in charge thereof decamped to America. Thom took 
the next vessel for these shores, and was successful in recovering 
most of the money due him. His fame as sculptor had preceded 
him,, and he was offered the contract for making the ornamental 
stonework on the steeple of Trinity Church, which edifice was then 
rebuilding. He looked about him for suitable material and having 








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found it at Little Falls, within five miles of Paterson, he accepted 
the offer. It was but natural that he should visit Paterson, and 
it was just as natural that he should become acquainted with Roswell 
L. Colt. At his suggestion he made another "Tarn and Johnnie" at 
Little Falls, and these he sold to Mr. Colt. He quickly produced 
another pair, and these were started on a tour for exhibition. 
They were shown in New York and Philadelphia ; a storm on Chesa- 
peake Bay arrested their triumphant 'progress, for the vessel con- 
taining them foundered, and "Tarn and Johnnie" have never been 
rescued from their watery grave. The work on Trinity Church 
occupied Thorn's time, and, when that was completed, Thorn had 
enough money to purchase a farm near Eamapo, where he spent the 
rest of his days, his death occurring on April 17, 1850. 

"Tain O'Shanter" and "Souter Johnnie" stood at the entrance 
to the mansion on Colt's Hill for many years after Roswell L. Colt 
had passed to the beyond; the mansion was uninhabited, but the 
people of Paterson were fond of roaming over the grounds, and as 
a matter of course paying their respects to "Tarn O'Shanter" and 
"Souter Johnnie." School children enjoyed climbing over the 
statues, and when the use of cameras was no longer confined to 
studios, "Tarn and Johnnie" were numerously photographed. In 
1891 preparations were made for the razing of the hill, and it was 
necessary to find a new home for "Tarn and Johnnie." There 
would have been no difficulty in finding a purchaser, but the owners, 
Morgan G. Colt and Mrs. DeGrasse B. Fowler, the surviving chil- 
dren of Roswell L. Colt, thought it would be a pity to send them into 
a country strange to them ; the stuff they were made of came from 
the bowels of the earth near Paterson, and they had certainly been 
in Paterson long enough to claim citizenship. So the owners of the 
pair offered them to the Paterson Free Public Library, a gift which 
was thankfully accepted. They were placed in the vestibule of the 
library building on the corner of Church and Market streets. But 
their sojourn there was a short one, for a day of reckoning comes for 
people who dwell in intimate association with the flowing bowl, even 
if these people are made of Little Falls sandstone. During the night 
of February 9, 1902, "Tarn and Johnnie" disappeared. That was 
the night of the great fire which swept away a large portion of Pat- 
erson, including the public library. What became of "Tarn and 
Johnnie" is not positively known. The probability is that between 



fire, water and falling masonry, they were ushered out of existence 
with not enough of them left even for the most enterprising coroner 
to hold an inquest on. There is, however, a story which bobs up 
occasionally, to the effect that the two statues were not destroyed 
by fire, but that they were removed by some enterprising citizen who 
is keeping them in seclusion until such time when no law may call 
him to account, a story which finds corroboration in the fact that no 
part of the statues was found in the ruins, although the statues 
stood near the street, but is almost negatived by the improbability 
that any person could or would remove in such hours of excite- 
ment works of stone weighing several hundred weight each. 




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Steamboats of Chautauqua Lake 

By T. Henry Black, Jamestown, New York 

JHEN a boy, living at Long Point, Lake Chautauqua, 
the writer became so interested in the steamers that he 
knew them intimately, and being somewhat of an artist 
he sketched in freehand drawings the then existing 
boats. He also conceived the idea of a brief description of each 
steamer, never thinking that later in life he would have the privilege 
of making his dreams come true. It was only when a representative 
of The American Historical Society called at the studio for photos 
of some lake steamers to use in connection with a " History of Chau- 
tauqua County" that the devoting of a special chapter to the steam- 
ers was first considered. Fortunately a valuable collection of the 
old-time steamers had been preserved, which with those of more 
recent years have been drawn upon for illustrations. The history of 
means of transportation in use in any community is really a history 
of the minds and methods of that community during any given per- 
iod, and it is interesting to contrast the means used in transporting 
people and goods in each period with those of later years. On 
Chautauqua Lake the first mention of a boat to transport freight is 
of a hewn out log canoe, then came the horse-boat, next the sailing 
craft, and finally the steamboat. 

It is difficult to give any detailed account of the first steamers, or 
boats, as the historians of the lake have been content to chronicle the 
fact of their existence. Had the art of photography been then de- 
veloped to anything like its present perfection, it would have been 
possible to give a reproduction of the old log canoe, the curious 
horse-boat, and the first steamer. However, much has been done in 
later days to preserve the story and appearance of these boats, and 
herein some of the more famous boats are reproduced. 

While Chautauqua Lake is the same to-day as when the Indian 
drove his birch canoe across its waters, to those whose lives have 
been spent along its shores it seems different, with its hotels, par! s, 



and trolleys, but its romance lingers, and its beauty appeals as well 
to the native son as $ the tourist. At one time many of the boats 
bore Indian names — Hiawatha, Winona, Minnehaha, names con- 
ferred in tribute to the beautiful imagery employed by the Indians 
in selecting names, and particularly were they appropriate to the 
boats that plied the lake with the beautiful Indian name "Chautau- 

To give in detail the history of each steamer which has appeared 
on the lake since the Chautauqua was built in 1827, would be to 
largely overrun the limits allotted to this subject. Nevertheless it 
would be a matter of most interesting nature, and would vividly 
recall facts and incidents of lake traffic well worthy of preservation, 
for the boats of the olden time made history. In those days the 
steamers furnished the only quick mode of transportation between 
Jamestown and Mayville, the railroad and the electric car being 
then far in the future, and the appearance of each new boat marked 
an epoch in county history. When competition between rival lines 
began, the desire for finer equipment and faster boats was gener- 
ated, until a climax was reached about 1882, when Henry Harley, the 
oil operator, "Pipe Line Harley," took over the control and man- 
agement of the Chautauqua Lake Navigation Company, which the 
following year became the Chautauqua Lake Transit Company. 
The opposing line was built and owned by the Burroughs Brothers, 
famous builders of Lake Chautauqua steamers, theirs the "People's 
Line." The Cincinnati, Buffalo, Alaska, and others, were con- 
temporary, and races were run between the steamers, which rivaled 
in excitement and interest those on the Mississippi river in the olden 

The first mention of any attempt to navigate Chautauqua Lake 
with commercial intent was in 1806, when the big log canoe built by 
Robert Miles began to make lake history. The Miles canoe was in 
service as a freight carrier until 1824, when the bursting of a dam 
caused the destruction of this first of all lake boats of a commercial 
character. Keel and Durham boats which made trips between Chau- 
tauqua county points and Pittsburgh were often seen on the lake 
during that period, but they were built for another purpose, and 
lake travel was but an incident. The famous "horse-boat" was next 
to appear on the lake as a freight carrier, and that boat, steered by 
Captain William Carpenter, was a wonderful sight, although not a 





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financial success nor a speed marvel. It is worthy of note that this 
Captain William Carpenter, an Englishman, drove the first mail 
coach between Jamestown and Mayville, was steersman of the 
"horseboat," and when the first steamboat was put on the lake he 
was also a steersman. 

The "horse-boat" was built in 1824 by Elisha Allen, and was 
little more than a scow with a cabin on one side for passengers and 
stables for eight horses on the other. There were small paddle 
wheels on either side, and a large wheel in the center connected 
by gearing with the shaft of the paddle wheels. This center wheel 
was put in motion by four horses, and they furnished the entire 
power, each team of four horses being kept at work one hour. The 
trip from Jamestown to Mayville consumed ten hours when every- 
thing went well, but it was not uncommon for a round trip to con- 
sume a week. The boat gave way the second year to the schooner 
Mink and to scows with sails, which competed for the freight busi- 
ness between Mayville and Jamestown. 

In 1827 Alvah Plumb formed a company and built the first steam- 
boat for Chautauqua Lake, a staunch boat, built of the best white 
oak timbers by a ship carpenter named Kichards, from Buffalo. 
The steamboat was launched from the yards on the outlet in May, 
1827, the event being duly celebrated. All the usual launching con- 
ventions were observed, even to the breaking of a bottle of currant 
wine on the boat's bow as the words "I name thee Chautauqua were 
uttered. The boat was soon finished and painted, a figure of a 
woman's head and bust placed on her bow, and machinery installed 
which was brought from Pittsburgh by Phineas Palmeter and an 
engineer named Starring. The last of June the Chautauqua made 
her trial, and the first trip to Mayville was made July 4, 1827, Cap- 
tain John T. Willson in command. Captain Willson was captain 
for one year, then was succeeded by Captain David S. Walbridge 
(later Congressman from the State of Michigan). After him came 
Captain Phineas Palmeter, who was succeeded by Captain George 
W. Kellogg, and he by Captain James Hill. In 1835 the Robert Fal- 
coner, a larger and faster boat, was built and commanded by Cap- 
tain Kellogg, and run in opposition to the Chautauqua, which was 
under the command of Captain Hill. The Robert Falconer was later 
named the William H. Setvard and still later the Empire. 

In 1848 Captain George Stoneman (father of General Stoneman) 



launched The Twins, a curious boat, being two large canoes fastened 
side by side a few feet apart and planked over. The Twins pro- 
pelled by horse power, occasionally carried freight between May- 
ville and Jamestown, and in 1851 the Ilollam Vail was built. She 
ran one season, and in the fall of 1852 burned at her dock. The 
Water Witch, built about 1S52 by M. P. Bemus and others, was a 
failure, and either sank or was burned at her dock. The C. C. Den- 
nis, a large boat with the best equipment of any boat on the lake for 
many years, was built in 1856 by Captain Gardner. She was run 
for several years, until the close of 1861, when the machinery was 
removed, and the hull of the boat taken to a spot on the outlet, where 
it was allowed to decay. Captain James Murray, when he first came 
to Jamestown, was connected with the operation of the C. C. Demiis. 
He was afterward owner and captain of the second steamer to be 
named Chautauqua, and was in command when her boiler exploded, 
with a sad loss of life. 

The Chautauqua No. 2 was built in 1863 by the Howell brothers 
and Alfred Wilcox. She passed through various ownerships until 
in August, 1871, she blew up, with the loss of eight lives, while tak- 
ing on wood at Whitney's Landing, about six miles from Mayville. 
The Post Boy, owned by Peter Colby, first appeared on the lake in 
1867. She burned in 1869, her name having been changed to A. R. 
Treiv after her purchase by Alfred Wilcox. 

Charles Brown and Ray Scofield built the Jamcstoivn in 1869. 
Charles G. Maples bought Scofield 's interest and commanded her in 
1870. The J amestown was rebuilt and enlarged and fitted with a 
screw propeller after her purchase by Captain T. H. Grandin. In 
the fall of 1875 she burned at her dock in Jamestown. 

The P. J. Ilanour, built for Beck & Griffith in 1874, was command- 
ed by Fred W. Griffith, and burned in the fall of the same year. 
Captain Griffith then built the M. A. Griffith, which he ran during ■ 
the season of 1875. Her upper works were destroyed by fire at the 
same time the steamer Jamestown was destroyed, but she was re- 

The May Martin, a stern-wheel steamer, was built in James- 
town in 1875 by Dr. W. B. Martin of Busti, and Frank Steele of 
Jamestown. She was built for excursion parties and could then 
navigate the outlet as far up as the railroad station. Other boats 
of that period were the A. R. Trew, M. A. Griffith, and the P. J. 



Hanour. The J. M. Burdick, a small steam yacht, owned in May- 
ville, was chiefly used in the upper lake for pleasure parties. The 
C. J. Hepburn, a steam yacht, was also owned in Mayville, and used 
as an excursion boat. 

The Nettie Fox was built in Jamestown in the spring of 1875 for 
C. J. Fox and Captain Eobert Jones, by Isaac Hammutt, of Pitts- 
burgh. She was the first stern-wheel steamer on the lake, and was 
run on strictly temperance principles, no liquor being sold or kept 
on board. She was one hundred and seventy feet in length, with 
main, boiler, hurricane, and promenade decks, and a ladies' cabin 
with staterooms. After being remodeled in 1875, she was renamed 

In 1873 the Colonel William Phillips was built at Bemus Point, 
and owned by Captain William H. Whitney. She was a side-wheel 
boat, the only one on the lake at that time. 

The Josie Bell, built in 1875, a pleasure boat fifty-five feet in 
length, had the honor of carrying President Grant from Jamestown 
to Fair Point in August, 1875. The Nereus conveyed the President 
from Fair Point to Mayville. Other small boats of that period were 
the Hcttie Hooker, owned by Fox & Lytle; the Oliver Hepburn, 
and the Lotus, all owned in Mayville. The W. B. Sliattuck was built 
by A. Shattuck in 1879, the year of the great Courtney-IIanlan 
fiasco, when Courtney's boats at Mayville were put out of commis- 
sion the night preceding the race which was to have decided the 
rowing championship of the world. The recent death of Mr. Court- 
ney (1920) recalls that deeply regretted event, which is yet a matter 
of argument in the sporting world. The race was to have been 
rowed on Lake Chautauqua, and was awarded to Hanlan, Courtney, 
without racing boats, being unable to appear. 

The Fearless, Derby, Olivia, Heltie Hooker, and Allaquippa were 
all boats of the period 1875-1880. Following, in 1880, was the John 
F. Moidton, built by G. A. Wegeforth, and later remodeled and re- 
named the New York. The J. A. Burch, built by Burroughs Broth- 
ers, was later named Hiawatha, and renamed the Chicago; she was 
finally destroyed by fire. Then came the Alaska; Captain True; 
The Mystery; the Henry Hurley, built by Cornell & Wilcox, and 
later called Colmnbia; the Cincinnati, built by Burroughs Brothers 
in 1880-81; the G. J. Cornell, built in 1882; the R. N. Marvin, by 
Eobert Cooper & Sons in 1881; the City of Buffalo, built by Bur- 



roughs Brothers in 1889; the City of Cleveland, by the same build- 
ers in 1891-92, she the last large steamer to be launched on the lake. 
The third steamer to bear the name City of Jamestown was built 
in 1910. 

A number of smaller steamers in the early days of navigation 
worthy of mention were the steamer Nydia, owned by George Mun- 
roe, built in Jamestown in 18S7; steamer Dispatch, Johnson and 
Peterson, built in 1881; steamer Goldie, owned by Major Stevens, 
built in Buffalo in 1884; steamer Wooglin, built at Mayville, re- 
built in 1885; steamer J. H. Lytle, owned by Horace Fox, 
built at Mayville in 1885; steamer Mabel, owned by Henry Fry, 
built at Mayville in 1885, Captain Fred J. Vancise ; steamer Alert, 
owned by Ben Firman and George Munroe, built at Jamestown, in 

In 1879, A. M. Kent brought the steamer Waukegan from Pitts- 
burgh for service on Lake Chautauqua. She was the first all steel 
boat on the lake, her speed twenty miles per hour. A fast boat, 
brought from the seacoast, was the Greenlmrst (later the Louise), 
a boat designed by Herreschoff, of American cup defender fame. 
There were other boats brought to Lake Chautauqua, but nearly all 
that ply the lake were home built. The fleet now owned and oper- 
ated during the open season by the Lake Chautauqua Navigation 
Company consists of six steamers : The Neiv York, carrying capac- 
ity 850; Buffalo, 800; Cincinnati, 750; Cleveland, 500; Chadakoin, 
75; Mayville, 75. 

August 14, 1871, the most terrible calamity that ever visited this 
section occurred at Whitney's Landing, in the bay of the same 
name, on the western shore of Lake Chautauqua. The steamer 
Chautauqua which left Jamestown at four p. m. with about thirty 
passengers and crew on board, increased by half a dozen at Bemus 
Point, had come to the dock to take on wood, and while lying there 
the boiler exploded, tearing the boat to pieces and filling the air 
with flying timbers and human bodies. The sound of the explosion 
was heard miles away, and assistance was quickly forthcoming. 
The explosion occurred at 6.20, the steamer having been lying at the 
dock for about ten minutes, the engine room apparently deserted, 
with the steam guage rising. Suddenly, without warning, came a 
terrific report, the whole bow of the boat going into the air in pieces. 
The stern was rent in fragments, and for twenty rods around, the 




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water and land was covered with broken timbers, with here and 
there a mangled bleeding form. Every part of the boiler was blown 
out of the boat. Four persons were instantly killed and four more 
did not survive the night. The dead were: Mrs. J. C. Cochrane; 
Mrs. Perry Aiken; Mrs. Jerusha Hopkins and her two daughters, 
Misses Julia and Eunice; Iduca Eells, a child of four years; Mrs. 
Samuel Bartholomew; and Henry Cook, colored. The badly injur- 
ed were : John Bemus, Alvin Plumb, Dan. P. Eells, TV. S. Cameron; 
James M. Murray, captain of the Chautauqua; Fred Johnson, pilot; 
Joseph Brown, Caleb Norton, Cornelius Shaw, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Leach. The marvel was that any escaped. 

The answer to the call for help was immediate, doctors and sup- 
plies being hurried to the spot as soon as the news of the tragedy 
spread. Houses nearby were opened, and the farmers were at once 
on the spot with such supplies as they could furnish. The houses 
of A. II. Whitney, Alonzo Whitney and Norman Newbury sheltered 
the dead and the dying, and all night long these families ministered 
to the injured. 

The cause of the explosion was found to be carelessness on the 
part of those in charge of the engine and boiler. This sad happen- 
ing cast a gloom over the lake section and was long the subject of 
much speculation as to the party or parties responsible for the 
great loss of life and for the destruction of the steamer. An excel- 
lent photo of the boat taken after the explosion appears in this 
work. Probably the most interesting steamer on the lake from a 
romantic point of view was the old steamer Jamestown, commanded 
by Captain "Ted" Grandin, who made history for himself and his 
boat. He was an imposing figure when fully dressed, and, occasion- 
ally wearing a big stovepipe hat, he stood with one foot on the rail 
issuing his commands in no gentle voice or language, but it was 
remarkable how well he was obeyed. Those were days of keen com- 
petition, and when two steamers made a landing at about the same 
time, rival agents and crews frequently had fistic encounters over 
passengers awaiting their coming. Pacing was frequently indulged 
in, but the Jamestown was a slow moving boat and could not com- 
pete in speed contests, but she was popular nevertheless, and always 
carried the crowd. The moonlight excursions on the Jamestown 
were very popular, the many quiet, secluded corners lending them- 
selves willingly, it would seem, to the couples who, after dancing on 



the upper decks, would seek their shelter, as lovers will. In fact 
the boat carried an atmosphere of pleasure, and when that dreaded 
marine foe — fire — swept her from the lake, the many who had trod 
her deck on pleasure bent sincerely mourned as though for a friend. 

The two fastest boats of the period were the Hiawatha and the 
Cincinnati, owned by rival companies. The captains of these boats 
never declined a race against each other, although the Cincinnati 
was a shade the faster boat. The rules of the lake decreed that when 
two steamers were approaching the same landing, the one first at 
the whistling buoy had the right of waj r , but in the heat of a race this 
little rule was sometimes overlooked, and dire were the results. On 
one occasion the Hiawatha and the Cincinnati reached a whistling 
buoy simultaneously, and both made for the landing, the Hiawatha 
on the inside first reaching the dock. So great was her speed, how- 
ever, that the lines thrown out to check her speed parted, and she 
swept along, taking a few spiles from the dock with her. The Cin- 
cinnati checking her speed sooner, quickly made the dock, and car- 
ried off all but a few of the waiting passengers, which the beaten 
Hiawatha backed in and took on board. 

The Josie Bell one day attempted to save time by cutting across 
Busti Bay, but miscalculating, ran aground on the shoals, her pas- 
sengers having to be taken off in small boats to a steamer sent to 
their assistance. 

The Louise on one occasion was racing with one of the large 
steamers in the narrow outlet, and, coming too close, the suction 
from the larger boat drew her against the gunwale and a serious 
accident was only averted by those on the Louise scrambling quick- 
ly on board the large steamer. The laws were adequate but were 
not always observed, the rival captains taking long chances, and if 
successful were the ''heroes" of the moment. 

Captain "Ted" Grandin was the most picturesque of the old-time 
captains, and the best known. Among the owners, Henry Harley 
was conspicuous. He was a man of great energy, and whatever he 
touched he vitalized and endowed with new life. Thus when he ob- 
tained control of a lake line of steamers a new era was ushered in. 
He built a handsome summer residence on the shores of the bay at 
Long Point, the writer's father being for nine years superintendent 
of the Harley estate. Those were happy years for the lad, who had 
nothing to do but amuse himself and aid in amusing others with 


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boat, rod, or line. Long Point in those days was the favorite picnic 
grounds, and nearly all excursions or picnics came there for the day. 
Volumes could be written concerning the methods Mr. Harley used 
to popularize the lake and his lake boats. One season he brought the 
Madrigal Boys, a choir of thirty voices, from New York, and had 
them give daily concerts on the lake boats. The boys camped at 
Long Point, and in their natty sailor suits proved a strong attrac- 
tion, while their sweet singing won all hearts. On the lawn of the 
Harley mansion a great flag pole was erected, from the top of which 
an American flag floated from sunrise until sunset. It was the 
custom for every steamer of the Harley line to salute the flag when 
passing the house, and woe be to the pilot who ' 'forgot." 

But the old days have gone, and steamboating on Chautauqua 
Lake is now a modern business, the gayhearted crowds which 
thronged the boats now being divided into smaller parties traveling 
to lake points by private conveyance, auto or yacht, by trolley or 
steam car, the glory of the steamers having in a measure departed. 
But the beauties of the outlet and the lake remain, and of all who 
visit the resorts of the old lake there are none who carry away such 
pleasant recollections as those who made the circuit of the lake 
from the Jamestown docks on one of the excursion steamers. 

Note — The foregoing narrative, with the accompanying illustrations, is reproduced 
■from "History of Chautauqua County and Its People," recently out of press. (Three 
volumes, American Historical Society, Inc., New York and Chicago). 



The Land of Possibilities 

By Amelia Day Campbell, New York City 

JLASKA is rapidly losing lier claim to being a land of 
mystery, and is fast becoming known for the variety 
and vastness of her resources, and appreciated because 
of the great revenue they bring to our Government 
and the needed supplies to our people, so that commercially she "is 
on the map," and every day brings tales of additional means 
through which the world will benefit by her wealth. Only a few 
short months ago, Secretary Daniels went there, presumably in the 
interest of coal, and as the Government railroad already traverses 
one of the coal mining sections, it will be a much easier matter to 
coal our Pacific fleet from Alaska than by hauling it across the 
Rockies or shipping it through the Panama Canal from the eastern 
mines. And now comes the news that the great and serious shortage 
of paper, especially newsprint paper, is to be overcome by utilizing 
the resources of the vast Alaskan forests which can supply one 
hundred million cords of pulp wood, keeping mills busy for the next 
thirty years, and, with the additional supply which the Government 
will reserve, another fifteen years can be added to the thirty before 
the present growth is exhausted. In fact, it is estimated that this 
will become one of the three important industries and on a par with 
Fisheries and Mining. 

To the excessive moisture, warmth of the Japan current and the 
long days, are due the gigantic growth of the forests along this 
southern strip of Alaska, the same as in California and the entire 
Northern Pacific coast. The yellow cedar has great commercial 
value, which during the war passed the test for airplanes. The 
balsam fir is used for tanning, and the Sitka or Alaska spruce is 
much in demand for native houses, mining camps, and for boarding 
over their roads and village streets. 
Until 1906 there were practically no roads, so that travel was 



confined almost entirely to the waterways, of which four thousand 
miles were navigable, but as these routes were only open for a few 
short summer months, travel and shipping were icebound for many 
months, and mail was received at infrequent intervals in the far 
north regions, for it had to be sent over ice and snow by dog teams. 
So when roads were provided for, they were built where they would 
do the most good to the entire territory. Fairbanks, up near the 
center of Alaska, is the center of the road system, from which place 
communication can be had with the outside world, and wagon trans- 
portation is now possible to the many mining camps where formerly 
supplies were sent by pack trains over the narrow and dangerous 
trails. In summer there is a passenger automobile service for tour- 
ists and miners, but in winter horse sleds handle the traffic, mail, 
etc., many times four horses being required to make the trips from 
one stage point to another. In 1918 there were 920 miles of wagon 
roads, built at a cost of $3,114 per mile; C29 miles of winter sled 
roads, costing $345 per mile ; and 2,210 miles of trails, costing $106 
per mile. In the same year there were 547 miles of railroad, and the 
Government is as rapidly as possible building a railroad that will 
connect Fairbanks with the Pacific Ocean, which will revolutionize 
trade and travel conditions. 

It would seem that these standardized modes of travel are to be 
supplemented by the airplane, for last August four Government 
airplanes arrived safely at Nome on Seward Peninsula, having made 
the journey from Mineola, Long Island, in fifty-six hours actual 
flying time, "which demonstrated the feasibility of establishing 
mail, express and passenger communication with Alaska by air" 
at no distant day, and thus another pioneer undertaking has been 
successfully accomplished. 

The spirit of adventure which brought the Pilgrims to our shores 
three hundred years ago, and which kept them here despite almost 
unendurable privations and hardships, is an hereditary character- 
istic of our race which produces the venturesome explorer, the 
home-seeking pioneer, the pleasure-loving traveller, the daring avi- 
ator, the historical novelist — all of whom contribute toward bring- 
ing nearer together the "uttermost parts of the earth," making 
neighbors of all nationalities, broadening our horizon and viewpoint 
— the result being a greater tolerance and understanding of the 
customs and characteristics not of our own standards. 



And so the opening up of Alaska and the navigation of her trib- 
utary waters has brought us right up close to Russia, till "hands 
across the sea" is an accessible fact, but not an accomplished one. 
But we must see to it that the hand stretched out to us is not that 
of the incendiarist against our Government ; and that ours is extend- 
ed for the well-being of that great country which at present is en- 
during the pangs of rebirth. The desperateness of their painful 
struggle must be ameliorated by the healing powers of assistance, 
of. sympathy, of education and discipline. Too long have these 
people been serfs and slaves of a system which gives no advance- 
ment or progress to the individual. 

Alaska is still reminiscent of Russia's dominion, in the towns of 
Russian name throughout the settled parts of the country, also in 
the Asiatic and Esquimeau type of Indians who inhabit these towns, 
as well as those of more recent date and American origin. The 
Indians are employed in the canneries, the mines and the fisheries, 
and many of them greatly resemble Chinamen. They are diligent, 
have a fair intelligence, and are law-abiding citizens — those that are 
left — but the white man's diseases, from which it is almost impos- 
sible for them to recover, have exterminated most of those original 
settlers. Measles and consumption are usually fatal, and the "flu" 
wiped out nearly the entire Indian population of the Aleutian Is- 
lands during the winter of 1918-1919. 

Probably one of the greatest tragedies in Indian life has been 
caused by the white man's "firewater." When they once got a taste 
of it they went to any lengths to get it, and were so intemperate in 
its use and misuse that many tribes literally drank themselves to 
death. Originally the Indians were warriors, and they made a won- 
derful picture skimming over the water in their eighty and one hun- 
dred foot canoes hollowed out of one long yellow cedar tree, with the 
crest of the chief on the prow, which he had earned by his prowess 
and exploits. These canoes were capable of carrying seventy-five 
men with their bows and arrows, spears, and shields of thick walrus 
hide, and Admiral Lutke called them "The Cossacks of the Sea." 
Good examples of these canoes are to be found in Alert Bay on Van- 
couver Island, where they are drawn up alongside the Indian bury- 
ing ground, for the canoe of a chief is never used after he dies. 

Only fifty-three years have elapsed since Congress, much against 
its better judgment, closed the deal for "Seward's Iceberg," even 



though the purchase price averaged less than $12.50 per square 
mile — a country one-fifth the size of the United States. No matter 
whether it was a vision of future values, or just an investment 
expected to give a fair return on the money expended, Secretary 
Seward declared this purchase to be the most important transaction 
of his official career, and the fact is becoming more and more evident 
that commercially its importance increases daily, while as a recrea- 
tion ground we predict it will some day rival many of the fashion- 
able social resorts of our country. People want the unusual, the 
variety, both of which are abundantly found in Alaska. 

The "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes" fittingly describes a por- 
tion of this Peninsula, for Alaska was formed by volcanic eruption, 
the west coast and the seventy treeless islands forming the Aleutian 
group (only twenty of which are inhabited) being of recent up- 
heaval, while many islands in the Behring Sea are still rising. These 
volcanic forces are responsible for the numerous hot springs of 
great value and of chemical and curative qualities. The Hot Springs 
of the Serpentine near Nome on Seward Peninsula is the fashion- 
able health resort, while the Hot Springs on Baker Creek in Tanana 
Valley have the greatest reputation and have become a favorite 
watering place. 

Much of the charm and mystery of Alaska were founded on the 
supposed terrors of cold, inaccessibility, and impassible snows. 
True, the Arctic portion of this Territory is cold. At Point Bar- 
row, the northernmost point of land, which few people reach, the sun 
is absent for forty days, so that the winters are long and the sum- 
mers short. In July the temperature is 39 above, and in January, the 
coldest month, 21 below zero, while the average temperature from 
November to April is 13 below. In the summer of 1920, for the first 
time in two years, the revenue cutter Bear succeeded in breaking 
the icepack and reaching Point Barrow, which must have brought 
joy and delight to the Rev. Dr. Frank H. Spence, Presbyterian mis- 
sionary, who is the only white inhabitant of this place, the others 
being natives. On the other hand, at least four-fifths of this north 
country, especially along the waterways, has a surprisingly mild 
climate. As a matter of fact, the temperature selddom goes below 
zero in winter or above 80 degrees in summer in the Sitkan or 
southeastern part. In midsummer the days are extremely long, and 
as far south as Pyramid Harbor the sun does not set until about 



2 o'clock in the morning, rising again four hours later, and even 
during those few hours it is possible to read fine print. At Sitka 
there is no night at all, but in winter only six hours of daylight. 

Due to the long days, flowers attain a size of nine inches in diam- 
eter, and only twelve strawberries will fill a quart measure. It has 
been estimated that 100,000 square miles are suitable for agricul- 
tural purposes along the river valleys. Potatoes are raised in suffi- 
cient quantities to meet the demand, oats and barley are extensively 
grown, and rye in fair quantities. 

The advancement that has been made in travel can be realized 
when no longer ago than 1889, Martin M. Ballou in his "The 
New Labrador" said, "The trip to Sitka and back is easily accom- 
plished in three months." The trip to Skaguay, very much farther 
north, is now made in nine days, there and back to Vancouver. There 
are three very accessible trips for tourists. The most popular and 
well known is the southeastern route through Sitkan Alaska, for 
which one takes a steamer at Seattle or Vancouver through the In- 
land Passage to Skaguay, with stops at Alert Bay (if via Van- 
couver), then Ketchikan, Wrangell and Juneau. Another is the 
south-western trip, which includes the above route to Juneau, and 
from there on to Cordova and to Seward, touching at Valdez and 
other ports. The third is the boat trip direct from Seattle by way 
of the Pacific Ocean to Nome on Seward Peninsula. Nome can also 
be reached by the first route to Skaguay, then by railroad to White 
Horse, then steamer to Dawson, changing to another steamer for 
the trip down the Yukon river. When the government railroad is 
finished from Seward to Fairbanks, the second trip can be extended. 

It matters not which route one takes, the magnetism and charm 
of the everchanging scenery fascinates and beckons one on and on. 
To one the attraction is gold, to another fisheries, to still another 
hunting big game or trapping fur-bearing animals, to others the 
pleasure of beholding all that comes within the range of vision, 
enjoying the long days of the midnight sun — but to all, a fascination 
that is irresistible and which overrides all thought of hardship and 
possible obstacles to be encountered. Ballou says he has made the 
trip to Skaguay nine times, and "to me the landscape has never 
been twice alike, with its shifting lights, changing seasons and vary- 
ing weather, affording the same pleasure for study and observa- 
tion as a beautiful woman in her capricious moods. Along the Alas- 



ka coast the elements of sea and mountain, of glacier and craig and 
vegetation, take on such subtle qualities of beauty and tenderness, 
of grandeur and picturesqueness, as to bewilder the traveller when 
he pauses to analyze and compare." 

The Inland Passage is a very wonderful waterway, of such depth 
that ocean-going steamers would have no difficulty in traversing its 
entire course from Seattle to Skaguay. On the other hand, the 
Yukon river, which cuts across Alaska and divides it into two parts, 
although 1500 miles long is very shallow, and freight has to be 
transferred from ocean steamers to river boats. The width of the 
river is ten and in some places thirty miles, but it has a shal- 
low sand} 7 bottom. The Coast Range mountains, which run parallel 
along the east coast of the Inland Passage, have many peaks rising 
G,000 and 8,000 feet, the tops being covered with snow for 2,000 feet. 
"The mountain barrier to the west shields the Inland Passage from 
the Arctic winds, and the Japanese current which flows along the 
Pacific Coast fills the air with vapor which the prevailing western 
winds drive against the icy mountains, converting the warm vapor 
into almost perpetual rain and fog." According to statistics, the 
rainfall is 60 to 90 inches, and the days of rain during the year 
range from 190 to 285. 

Alert Bay is the first stop on the Inland Passage trip, and here is 
an Indian settlement of the truest type — descendants of the Haidas 
tribe. The village consists of one long street, with rows of houses 
on one side only, and facing the water. The Indian houses have the 
totem (tribal pole) at the entrance, and their native name is Ko-te-a, 
meaning likeness or image. The Indian burying ground is at the 
far end of the village, some of the graves being marked by totems, 
others surrounded by peculiar fences. Most of the totems are paint- 
ed in brilliant colors, and, though weatherbeaten, still retain their 
color. An exception, however, was the totem to Arthur Dawson, a 
young Indian chief of nineteen who committed suicide during the 
war, and whose totem is black and white. 

At the opposite end of the village is an English church. The 
Christian religion is embraced by many of the Indians, and almost 
all of the marriages are Christian ceremonies; their children also 
receive Christian baptism. At the same time, the old superstitions 
and traditions still continue with many, for we saw bodies of chil- 
dren "buried" by being suspended in burial coverings from the 



branches of trees on the hill. Cremation is quite customary, and 
often there is a receptacle near the top of the totem for holding the 
ashes of the dead. 

There is a cannery at Alert Bay where the salmon, of which large 
boatloads are landed and assorted on the wharf, arc put through 
the canning process, and in a comparatively short time emerge seal- 
ed up in tins ready for shipment to all parts of the country. In 
these hauls there are many spring salmon weighing sixty-five to 
eighty-five pounds each. These are thrown out from the canning 
supply and used for other purposes. 

From Alert Bay we proceeded up the beautiful land-locked water- 
way to Prince Rupert — the last of the Canadian ports — and when 
this is made the great Pacific port from the Orient it will be the 
shortest route around the world. Dixon's Inlet admits the Pacific 
Ocean at this point, and for about two hours we get a taste of "un- 
pacific" ocean travel when our boat is out of sight of land, which 
is the case on two other short occasions during the trip from 
Vancouver to Skaguay. 

The formality of passing the Customs is gone through at Ketchi- 
kan, the first town in Alaska at which a landing is made, and after- 
wards there is a rush to get our mail into the postoffice so that it 
will bear the Alaska postmark. Ketchikan is a small village, the 
entire incorporated town having a population of only 1,613, whose 
occupations are mining, fishing and canning. Ketchikan is the com- 
mercial distributing point for all the surrounding country. There 
are numerous valuable copper mines — the only ones to be found in 
southern Alaska are in this vicinity, also a hundred mile tract of 
marble regarding which it is said that some of the colored marbles 
are unequalled by the finest Italian products. Gold mining has not 
been developed to any extent, nor silver, lead and zinc, but non- 
metallic building materials such as cement, gypsum, clay and gran- 
ite predominate. Greely says, in his "Handbook of Alaska," "The 
future mining in Ketchikan district, especially copper, appears 
certain of steady and extensive development. While its plants are 
necessarily costly, its labor uncertain and competition threatening, 
yet the availability of water power, the richness of the deposits, 
facility for working, and cheapness of transportation, are factors 
that should insure its continued prosperity." Ketchikan has a 
splendid system of plank walks, built to cover the uneven hilly 



ground, therefore the roads and streets are good. The 
have made familiar the renowned Ketchikan Salmon Falls, which 
from July to September teem with the fish which leap up the falls 
to the spawning ground above, and though torn and bleeding with 
their struggle, they persevere until they either reach their goal or 
die in the attempt. 

At Ketchikan, as well as in the villages of Wrangell, Petersburg 
and Juneau, farther up the Passage, one sees many of the Thlinget 
tribe of Indians. Among the totem poles of Ketchikan one of the 
most familiar is Chief Johnson's, which is surmounted by the raven. 
A great many tribal poles show the raven, which their legends say 
taught men to make war and instigated the Potlach, a sacrificial 
feast at which many slaves were killed. The raven was also consid- 
ered a trickster, and many words meaning cunning and treachery 
have "raven" for their root, such as ravener, ravening, ravenous, 

At Wrangell, the next stop, the industries are similar to those of 
Ketchikan. This is the shipping point for Stickin river and the 
west coast of Prince Edward Island. The town is primitive, crude 
and interesting. The water-front, with its shipping and numerous 
fishing boats, denotes a very thriving busy place, while the Indian 
women squatting along the wharf selling their Indian dolls and 
souvenirs to the boat passengers are a picturesque addition to the 
quaint town. Here are a public school, a government Indian school, 
a hospital, and several churches. Greeley relates: "The advent of 
American churches into the field came after twelve years of hesita- 
tion, and then through the efforts of the United States army. 
With the aid of Captain S. P. Joscclyn, the first Indian church out- 
side of the Greek pale was opened at Wrangell in 1S76, and in 1877 
Dr. Sheldon Jackson was sent to institute the first Presbyterian 
mission in Alaska." 

The principal totem is the Ti-hi-tan, the tribal pole of the "Bark 
House people." Old Chief Shakes' house and totem contain the 
ancient grizzly bearhead which was used as a mask at the Indian 
war dances, and was worn at Potlaches by the one appointed to kill 
the sacrificial slaves. Another interesting article in the Shakes 
collection is the Chilkat blanket, used in ceremonial dances and at 
funerals. It is named for the Chilkat tribe, who were so called be- 
cause they kept their fish in an icehouse. The warp of the blank;', is 



of yellow cedar, the woof of goats' wool, and the oranamental parts 
are sewed on as applique and are very curious. 

After leaving Wrangell, we pass through the Wrangell Narrows, 
twenty miles long, which widens and narrows in a most disconcert- 
ing way. The trip through the Inland Passage has been compared 
to that of the lakes of Norway on account of the many "meandering 
fjords," the numerous windings and turnings among the islands 
which seem like mountain ranges so sheer and stupendous is their 
towering height and their apparent depth into the water, and each 
with a grimness and greenness or glacial beauty all its own. Min- 
iature icebergs came floating down to meet us, looking like islands of 
unearthly translucent deep marine blue with cavernous depths, re- 
calling the Blue Grotto of Capri; but the excitement which these 
caused was soon forgotten as we approached the most wonderful 
sight of the entire trip — the Taku Glacier, towering three hundred 
feet out of the water, one mile in width, and extending back into the 
mountain seventy-five miles. It resembles a marble quarry, except 
that it is of the same weird blue as the icebergs, while large slabs as 
though cut by the sculptor's chisel seemed ready to topple as ice- 
bergs into the water. Our boat crept nearer and nearer until we 
were within two hundred feet and then came to anchor, with every 
passenger trying to get a good viewpoint from the stairs, the upper 
deck and every available high spot. Then the ship's whistle was 
blown so that we heard the echo which bounded back from the face 
of the glacier, and also from the farthest reaches of the mountains 
from which it emerged. This superb iceberg advances about eight 
feet a day, but its appearance never changes, and will not as it goes 
down through the ages, as through the ages it has come. 

Thirty miles beyond Wrangell we arrive at Juneau, the capital of 
Alaska and its oldest American settlement, called the "Gold Belt 
City," as it is the greatest mining center in the world. Juneau was 
named for Joseph Juneau, who discovered the quartz and placer 
riches which have made this such a farfamed region. It is the point 
of departure for Yukatat, Cordova, Valdez, Cook Inlet, Kodiak, 
TJnalaska and Bristol Bay. The metropolis is built on the slope of a 
mountain, with Mt. Juneau, three thousand feet high, as a back- 
ground. The roads are planked over and terraced one above the 
other up the mountain-side through the village. The huge mining 
plants seem part of the mountain itself, as they are built to conform 
to the rugged straight-sloping character of the country. 



Almost opposite Juneau, across the Passage, is the town of Doug- 
las, where are located the Treadwell mines, which were the first 
to successfully treat low-grade ore in Alaska. Nine-tenths of the 
gold of Southern Alaska is found on Douglas Island. The mining 
season in this section is from May 1st to November, and depends on 
the snowfall and water supply. Other great gold districts are Nome 
on Seward Peninsula, and Fairbanks in the Yukon Basin. 

Skaguay at the head of Lynn Canal (or channel) is the terminal of 
the water trip and the gateway to the interior of Alaska. After the 
White Pass was discovered, the old Chilcoot Pass was abandoned, 
and the rush of miners to the Klondike in 1897 built up Skaguay 
with mushroom-like suddenness. The early trail over the White 
Pass and across the border into the Yukon country is still to be seen 
winding its tortuous way up the steeps of the Coast Kange, where so 
many lives were laid down in the trail-blazing search for riches, be- 
cause of the hardships, fatigue and privations which those early 
gold-seekers encountered. Their terrible journey on foot can now 
be made in a few hours over the Wnite Pass & Yukon railroad to the 
lake region of the Yukon. The commercial importance of Skaguay 
depends almost entirely on the operations of this railroad. 

Much has been and still coiild be written of those early "shady" 
days of Skaguay when "Soapy Smith" was boss, saloon keeper, dive 
keeper, and confidence man, and who with his gang of thieves, de- 
coys and murderers, caused a reign of terror, when no miner coming 
out from the Klondike was safe with his hard-earned gold or his 
life. But those days seem myth-like to the present-day visitor — 
thrilling and romantic days invented by novelists for sensational 
reading — for now Skaguay is a law-abiding village, nestling in a 
valley surrounded by snow-tipped mountains on three sides which 
start from the very shores of the Canal. It has well-laid out streets 
and many substantial buildings, some of them vacant; while the 
shops are attractive and do a rushing business on boat days, for 
everybody wants a souvenir of Alaska to take home, and the assort- 
ment to select from includes the characteristic gold nugget chains, 
reindeer moccasins, Indian baskets, horn ink-stands, walrus-ivory 
paper weights and knives, as well as the beautiful Alaskan furs — 
sable, silver fox, ermine, coyote and red fox, and of course the 
lovely sealskin. The walrus is brought from the Behring Sea region, 
where the herds are found on the far northern coast, and where 



the animals themselves are used as food by the natives, and their 
ivory is readily disposed of to the traders. 

Alaska's fur industry increases annually, and fur farming is car- 
ried on to some extent, but so far not very successfully, although 
three islands are used for their propagation and others are avail- 
able. In 1918 the value of furs shipped out of Alaska was $1,363,- 
G00. The Pribilof or Seal Islands furnish four-fifths of the seal- 
skins of the world. We hear much of "seal fisheries," but they are 
actually driven on shore like sheep, working their way along by their 
fore-flappers at the rate of one or two miles an hour to the ware- 
houses, where they are killed by a blow on the head from a club 
which fractures their skulls. The flesh of the young seal is called 
Alaska pork, and is eaten by the whites, and the old ones, which are 
nearly all blubber, are eaten by the natives. Whales are also prized 
as food by the natives, especially those that drift ashore. Mr. George 
Wardman, United States Treasury Agent in Alaska several years 
ago, says, "The dead whale may be so putrid that the effluvia aris- 
ing from it will blacken the white paint of a vessel lying one hun- 
dred yards distant, but all the same the whale is a. blessing." The 
Siberian reindeer, which was introduced into Alaska and the Aleu- 
tian Islands through the efforts of the Coast Guard under the super- 
vision of the Board of Education, are today valuable possessions 
of the northern natives, as they provide them with transportation, 
clothing and food, and have served to educate and civilize the na- 
tives, as their distribution is part of the educational system. 

The possibilities for the future of the country and its people 
are impossible to calculate. There is so much virgin territory still 
to be explored, such vast possibilities in the further exploiting and 
development of present resources, that no prophecy would be great 
enough to encompass them, even with the fifty-three years of pres- 
ent accomplishment representing during the last forty years ship- 
ments amounting to the following as given by the Department of the 
Interior in their latest report: Value of gold lode mining since 
1882, $84,050,000 ; total copper production since 18S2, $88,610,000 ; 
placer gold mining since 1880, $207,000,000 ; silver has been mined 
to the extent of $4,800,000; tin, marble, gypsum, coal petroleum 
and lead, $4,600,000; fisheries for the year ending November, 1917, 


Did General Goffe Defend Hadley 

By Nathan E. Truman, Bainbridge, New York 

CCORDIXG to the early writers, the Indians attacked both 
Deerfield and Hadley the first of September, 1675. The 
Rev. Increase Mather in his "Brief History" gives a 
concise and somewhat cryptic account of the affair at 

the latter place in these words: "The Indians set upon Deerfield 
(alias Pacomtuck) and killed one man, and laid most of the houses 
in that new and hopeful plantation in ruinous heaps. That which 
added solemnity and awfulness to that desolation is, that it happen- 
ed on the very day when one of the churches in Boston was seeking 
the face of God by fasting and prayer before him. Also that very 
day the church in Hadley was before the Lord in the same way, 
but were driven from the holy service they were attending by a 
most sudden and violent alarm which routed them the whole day 
after." 1 Mather's work was published within a few months after 
the close of King Philip's War. In 1764, Thomas Hutchinson, 
author of the "History of Massachusetts Bay," described the same 
event as follows: "September the 1st, Hadley was attacked upon 
a fast day, while the people w r ere at church, which broke up the ser- 
vice, and obliged them to spend the day in a very different exer- 
cise." 2 And in a note he tells the tradition handed down in Gover- 
nor Leverett's family, which introduces a new actor into the scene: 

"The town of Hadley was alarmed by the Indians in 1675, in the 
time of public worship, and the people were in the utmost confusion. 
Suddenly a grave, elderly person appeared in the midst of them. 
In his mien and dress he differed from the rest of the people. He 
not only encouraged them to defend themselves, but put himself at 
their head, rallied, instructed and led them on to encounter the 
enemy, who by this means were repulsed. As suddenly the deliverer 
of Hadley disappeared. The people were left in consternation, 
utterly unable to account for this strange phenomenon. It is not 

'"History of King Philip's War," edited by S. G. Drake ; p. 72. 
"'Hist, of Mass. Bay," 2d ed., London. 1765 ; Vol. I, p. .294. 



probable that they were ever able to explain it. If Goffe had been 
then discovered, it must have come to the knowledge of those per- 
sons, who declare by their letters that they never knew what became 
of him." 3 

. General William Goffe and his father-in-law, General Edward 
Whalley, were prominent officers in the Commonwealth period. 
Whalley 's mother was Frances Cromwell Whalley, aunt of Oliver 
Cromwell. Both men had been members of Cromwell's House of 
Lords, and also of the High Court of Justice which condemned and 
sentenced King Charles I. With the approach of the Restoration, 
they thought it prudent to leave England. When Charles II. was 
proclaimed, their ship was already in the Channel and on July 27th, 
1660, they anchored at Boston. They were kindly received by the 
leaders of Massachusetts. In the following February when it was 
no longer safe for them to remain near Boston, they went to New 
Haven. By May, 1661, the demands of the English government for 
their arrest became insistent. Governor Endicott appointed Thom- 
as Kellond and Thomas Kirk, "zealous royalists, to go through the 
colonies, as far as Manhados (New York) in search of them." 4 Kel- 
lond and Kirk arrived at New Haven, May 13th ; but by the assis- 
tance of Deputy-Governor William Lecte, the Rev. John Davenport, 
Richard Sperry and other friends, the Judges evaded capture. 
They were concealed in the vicinity of New Haven until October 
13th, 1664. At that time their danger was enhanced by the arrival 
in Massachusetts of commissioners from King Charles. According- 
ly they started for Hadley, ' ' traveling only by night. ' ' At the time 
of the Indian attack, they had lived for more than ten years as the 
secret guests of the Rev. John Russell. Goffe 's diary, from the 
time he left England until 1667, passed into Increase Mather's li- 
brary, and finally into the possession of Hutchinson, the- historian. 

In 1794, thirty years after the appearance of Hutchinson's his- 
tory, Ezra Stiles, president of Yale, published a "History of the 
Three Judges" — Whalley, Goffe, and John Dixwell. He collected 
not only the written records, but also traditions concerning the 
life of the Judges in America. His formulation of the oral tradi- 
tions regarding the Indian attack is as follows : 

'"Hist, of Mass. Bay," 2d cd., London, 1765; Vol. I, p. 219. 
"'Hist, of Mass. Bay," 2d ed., London, 1765 ; Vol. I, p. 215. 



"Though told with some variation in the different parts of New 
England, the true story of the Angel is this: * * * The Nip- 
nets, Quabaugs and northern tribes were in agitation, and attacked 
the new frontier towns along through New England, and lladley 
among the rest, then an exposed frontier. That pious congregation 
were observing a fast at Hadley, on occasion of the war and, being at 
public worship in the meeting-house there, on a fast day, September 
1, 167 '5, were suddenly surrounded and surprised by a body of 
Indians. It was the usage in the frontier towns, and even in New 
Haven, in those Indian wars, for a select number of the congrega- 
tion to go armed to public worship. It was so at Hadley at this 
time. The people immediately took to their arms, but were thrown 
into great consternation and confusion. Had Hadley been taken, 
the discovery of the Judges had been inevitable. Suddenly, and in 
the midst of the people, there appeared a man of very venerable 
aspect, and different from the inhabitants in his apparel, who took 
the command, arranged, and ordered them in the best military man- 
ner, and under his direction they repelled and routed the Indians, 
and the town was saved. He immediately vanished, and the inhab- 
itants could not account for the phenomenon, but by considering 
that person as an angel sent of God upon that special occasion for 
their deliverance; and for some time after said and believed that 
they had been delivered and saved by an angel. Nor did they know 
or conceive otherwise till fifteen or twenty years after, when it at 
length became known at Hadley that the two Judges had been sec- 
reted there ; which probably they did not know till after Mr. Rus- 
sell's death in 1692. This story, however, of the Angel at Hadley, 
was before this universally diffused through New England by means 
of the memorable war of 1675. The mystery was unriddled after 
the Revolution (in England in 168S), when it became not so very 
dangerous to have it known that the Judges had received an asylum 
here, and that Goffe was actually in Hadley at that time. The Angel 
was certainly General Goffe, for Whalley was superannuated in 
1675." 5 

Sylvester Judd's "History of Hadley" was published in 1S63. 
The author quoted Mather, Hutchinson and Stiles. In reference to 
the assault by the Indians and the appearance of Goffe, he said: 
"The attack was undoubtedly upon the outskirts of the town, prob- 
ably at the north end. The approach of the Indians may have been 
observed by Goffe from his chamber, which had a window toward 
the east. There is no reason to believe that there was a very large 
body of Indians, but the people, being entirely unaccustomed to war, 

■"Three Judges," p. 109. 



needed Goffe to arrange and order them. The Indians appear to 
have fled after a short skirmish." 

For the Puritans who were in the secret, the act of General Goffe 
associated the battle of Dunbar and the siege of Worcester with the 
defense of the frontier village by the Connecticut. Not a messenger 
from heaven, but a champion of their lost cause in England had 
appeared to help at the hour of greatest need. In later times, auth- 
ors have not been slow to avail themselves of the dramatic value 
of the incident. Cooper wove a Goffe strand into the "Wept of 
Wish-ton-wish." Scott made Major Bridgenorth in "Peveril of 
the Peak" tell the story in a manner fascinating and true to the 
Puritan spirit. There Whalley instead of Goffe was hero. Haw- 
thorne transformed the incident in the "Gray Champion." Goffe 
was presented as the unnamed leader who had returned from the 
spirit world to aid the endangered cause of freedom in the trying 
days of Governor Andrus. 

For more than a century after the publication of Hutchinson's 
work, or until 1874, the Indian attack at Hadley was regarded as 
authentic history. In the October number of the "New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register" for that year, George Shel- 
don, the brilliant local historian of Western Massachusetts, sub- 
jected the story to keen scrutiny and came to the conclusion that it 
was myth. In 1905 he further elaborated that position by an "In- 
troduction" to the second edition of Judd's "History of Hadley." 
He said that Judd was misled by Stiles. He maintained that the 
alarm at Hadley mentioned by Mather was caused by anxiety aris- 
ing from the Indian assault on Deerfield; in a word, that there was 
no attack at Hadley on that date. He argued further that Hutchin- 
son's statement about the attack was based on the Leverett tradi- 
tion, and finally that the story could not have been true, because con- 
temporary writers are silent on the question. Sheldon's view has 
been accepted with little hesitation by subsequent historians. 7 He 
felt that he had settled the matter once for all; and were he still 
living, he might almost resent the expression of a doubt concerning 
his conclusion. But with all deference to Sheldon's memory, it may 
be said that his arguments need further consideration. Taking 

'"History of Hadley," 2d ed., p. 206. 

'Ellis and Morris, "History of King Philip's War," pp. 103-4. G. M. Bodge, "Soldiers 
of King Philip's War," p. 84. Alice M. Walker, "Historic Hadley," p. 27. 



up the main question, a simple method is first to examine the Mather 
passage, then the related tradition, and finally the facts that are 
known concerning Hadley at that time. 

The crux of the problem is to find the exact meaning of a single 
sentence from Mather's "History," the third in the quotation given 
above: "Also that very day, the church in Hadley was before the 
Lord in the same way, but were driven from the holy service they 
were attending, by a most sudden and violent alarm, which routed 
them the whole day after." Did the author mean, as Sheldon 
thought, that the people of Hadley were alarmed by the attack on 
Deerfield, fourteen miles away, or did he mean, as Judd and the 
earlier historians thought, that the people were alarmed by an at- 
tack on their own village. There is an obscure difficulty, apparently 
unnoticed by Sheldon, in the term "alarm." Some of Mather's 
words have definitely changed in meaning since the seventeenth cen- 
tury; e. g., he uses "jealosies" in the sense of suspicion, and "im- 
prove" in the sense of use or employ. But in. the word "alarm," 
the change has been merely one of shading. For the modern reader 
a partial change of meaning proves more elusive than a complete 
change. "Alarmed" in our use means struck with sudden fear or 
the apprehension of danger. The object of the emotion is left in 
any degree of vagueness, or altogether disregarded. When Mather 
used the term, the objective cause of the emotion was definitely 
expressed or directly implied. With the lapse of years, the word 
has lost in objective significance. 

Mather used the word either in noun or verbal form four other 
times in the "Brief History." A comparison of these passages 
shows that the object of the alarm is stated in every case, and also 
that in each instance the reason for the alarm is given in the same 
sentence as the word "alarm" itself. There is no need to go back- 
ward or forward two sentences in order to find what was the 

The second use of the term was under date of February 
23d. "A day of humiliation was attended in the old meeting-house 
in Boston but not without much distraction, because of an alarm, 
by reason of rumors, as if the Indians were doing mischief within 
ten miles of Boston." 8 Writing on March 27th, our author said: 
"Some of the inhabitants of Sudbury, being alarmed by what the 

"'History of King Philip's War," cd. by S. G. Drake ; p. 121. 



Indians did yesterday to their neighbors in Malbury, apprehending 
they might come upon the enemy unawares," etc. 9 Under date of 
April 9th, he wrote, "This day being the Lord's day, there was an 
alarm at Charlestown, Cambridge, and other towns, by reason that 
sundry of the enemy were seen at Billerica, and it seemeth had shot 
a man there." 10 Finally, on June 12th, in describing the second 
attack at Hadley, he used the term as we would use the words burg- 
lar or fire alarm, but was careful to explain the cause in the same 
sentence : "Within a while the sergeant apprehended that he heard 
men running, and looking over the fortification, he saw twenty In- 
dians pursuing those three men, who were so terrified, that they 
could not cry out; two of them were at last killed, and the other so 
mortally wounded, as that he lived not above two or three days; 
wherefore the sergeant gave the alarm." 11 

By this comparison of Mather's use of the term in the five pas 
sages, it is easy to see that he. obscurely expressed in the single sen- 
tence all he cared to say of the first attack on Hadley. A reference 
to affairs at Deerfield is unnecessary. Had that been the author's 
intention, he would have placed the Hadley sentence after the Deer- 
field sentence, and the mention of the service in the Boston church 
last; or failing that arrangement, he would have made a direct 
reference to conditions at Deerfield similar to the reference in each 
of the other four cases. Moreover, as the text stands, the adverbial 
phrase, "also that very day," is redundant on Sheldon's interpre- 
tation. If Hadley had been alarmed over what was taking place at 
Deerfield, of course it would have been "that very day." The 
alarms at Sudbury and at Charlestown-Cambridge were not worth 
even a mild adjective. The Boston alarm was accompanied by 
"much distraction." But the first Hadley alarm was "most violent 
and sudden," and ''routed them the whole day after." It was 
plainly a different and more serious type of alarm. Had the danger 
point been only at Deerfield, a "much distraction" variety of alarm 
would have been enough for Hadley. 

In this connection, Sheldon saw the difficulty of his interpretation, 
but attempted to explain it away by the "astonishing news" of 
"the attack that day upon Deerfield." According to him, "the 

'Ibid, ed. by S. G. Drake; p. 130. 
"Ibid, p. 133- 
"Ibid, p. 155. 



usual method of Indians in warfare is, to watch chances for a sur- 
prise; then a swift stroke, and a speedy retreat. But at Deerfield 
the first shock was unsuccessful; the Indians lingered, and in a 
measure besieged the garrison, expecting to lay the whole town in 
ashes." 12 For the moment Sheldon must have forgotten Brookfield 
where, just four weeks before that eventful Wednesday, the Indians 
had been besieging an armed garrison for two days and doubtless 
would have destroyed the English but for the timely arrival of 
Major Willard and his troopers. At both Brookfield and Deerfield, 
the persistence of the Indian attack after the moment of surprise, 
depended not upon any change in the character of their strategy 
but upon their belief that their force was sufficient to gain a victory 
with a minimum loss. There was nothing unique in the method of 
the Deerfield attack. 

The known facts fully explain the obscurity of Mather's state- 
ment. His regard for the safety of his friends, General Goffe and 
Mr. Bussell, (General Whalley was probably dead before the "Brief 
History" was written), led him to speak of the matter only in the 
most guarded manner. Incidentally it should be noted that this 
vagueness on Mather's part is a fact which tends to confirm the 
tradition that Goffe assisted in the defense; had the Indians been 
repulsed without that aid, the historian could have given a full ac- 
count of the circumstances. 

The exact meaning of the above quoted sentence from Mather 
is of first importance in estimating the historical value of the story 
of the attack. But the traditions of the alleged event deserve con- 
sideration. To whatever extent they represent facts, they confirm 
the older view and refute Sheldon's interpretation. The first tradi- 
tion we meet is that handed down in the Leverett family, and quoted 
above from Hutchinson's note. It is worth while to observe how 
Sheldon handled Hutchinson's account of the attack. He said the 
tradition "was either one stroke of some imaginative genius, or, as 
is more probable, the gradual growth of generations in the fireside 
lore of the Leverett family. Its roots were no doubt planted in the 
Mather story of the 'alarm' at Hadley." 13 After giving Hutchin- 
son's account of the attack quoted above, Sheldon said "this much 
of the 'anecdote,' " i. e., the attack, "was accepted by the historian, 

"Judd, "History of Hadley," 2d ed., Introd., p. xvii. 
"Ibid, Introd., p. xvii. 



as there is no other authority for it." 14 But how did Sheldon know- 
that the historian had no other ground for the statement? As a 
matter of fact, he assumed that Hutchinson read the Mather account 
as he (Sheldon) read it one hundred and ten years later. Accord- 
ing to his argument, the Leverett tradition might have grown from 
the Mather account, and the Hutchinson account was ''accepted" 
from the Leverett tradition. But looking at the matter without a 
preconceived interpretation in mind, it is obvious that the Mather 
account is the direct source of the Hutchinson account ; in fact, the 
latter is almost a paraphrase of the former. 

As stated above, it is only by discrediting the traditions of the 
attack that Sheldon's position can be maintained. Besides the 
Leverett account mentioned by Hutchinson, Sheldon criticised the 
stories preserved by Stiles in the "History of the Three Judges." 
His method there was to bring a blanket indictment against the 
entire work by impugning the accuracy of the author. He contend- 
ed that Stiles lacked the "judicial quality"; that he exhibited "a 
certain twist in the make-up which should lead us to suspect his 
conclusions. ' ' In defense of Stiles it can be said that he clearly dis- 
tinguished between written evidence and "faint tradition." Eef er- 
ring to Hutchinson's statement which he immediately quoted, Stiles 
said, "this may be depended upon as genuine information," 15 and 
at the end of the quotation: "Thus far Governor Hutchinson's nar- 
rative concerning these two persons ; which is the more valuable, 
as being extracted from their journal, it must contain the most 
accurate information we can ever obtain. To this extract posterity 
must ever have recourse," 16 etc. Shortly afterwards, following an- 
other quotation from the same work, Stiles wrote: "Hitherto we 
have proceeded upon accurate and authentic documents. I shall 
now collect and exhibit other scattered lights and traditionary in- 
formation, preserved partly in the public fame which such an event 
would be likely to produce at New Haven and Hadley, and partly in 
families whose ancestors were privy to the secrets of these men and 
concerned in their concealments. These anecdotes together with the 
description and delineation of their places of abode, may illustrate 
the history of these fugitive pilgrims." 17 Stiles' attitude as ex- 

"Ibid, Introd., p. xv. 
""Three Judges," p. 22. 
"Ibid, p. 29. 
"Ibid, p. 30. 



pressed in the above sentences is not that of a writer who gives 
"more weight to a faint family tradition than to verified contem- 
poraneous facts." 13 

Sheldon's arbitrary method of eliminating tradition that impeded 
his argument needs further examination. He referred to the report 
which Kellond and Kirk made to Governor Endicott, and criticised 
Stiles for discrepancies between that report and the local traditions. 
A striking fact, however, in this connection, is that while the report 
is detailed in the part which describes the unsatisfactory meetings 
with Deputy-Governor Leete at Guilford and New Haven, it is con- 
densed and stated in the most general terms for the remainder of 
the journey. No date is given after May 13th, until the date of the 
signature at Boston, May 29th. In fact, the intervening period is 
passed over in the short space of two compressed paragraphs. 
Stiles, as clearly as Sheldon, saw the difficulty of reconciling the 
traditions with the report; but he suggests a probable solution. 
To do him justice it is necessary to glance briefly at his treatment of 
the problem. He wrote: ''By the pursuivants' report to Governor 
Endicott it appears that they arrived at New Haven, May 13th; 
and it should seem that they left the town the next day and this 
without any search at all." However, "the Sperrys are uniform in 
the family tradition that the suprizal of the Judges at their ances- 
tors' house was by the pursuers from England * * * which 
could not have been if they staid in the town but one day. Perhaps 
'the next day' in the Report, might not be that immediately fol- 
lowing the 13th, but the next day after they found they could do 
nothing to purpose. * * * Governor Hutchinson says: 'They 
made diligent search.' And this has always been the tradition in 
New Haven. But of this nothing is mentioned in the report unless 
it is alluded to in the 'verbal account' given to Governor Endicott. 
The tradition is that the pursuers went to Sperry's house after their 
return from Manhados; but this could not be if they went from 
thence by water to Boston; unless returning again through New 
Haven to Governor Winthrop at New London, they might go from 
thence to Boston by water. But of this they take no notice in their 
report." 19 

Stiles had no doubt that some of the traditions he had collected 

"Judd, "History of Hadley," 2d ed., Introd., p. xi. 
""Three Judges," pp. 61-2. 



represented actual events. He certainly had good ground for his 
confidence in the Sperry account. He received it in 1785 from 
Joseph Sperry, then aged 76 years, who was a grandson of the first 
Richard Sperry, in whose house the fugitives were concealed. 1 ' 
Seignobos says: "No second-hand statement has any value except 
in so far as it reproduces its source."' 1 When the transmission of 
information is confined to a single family and extends only from 
grandfather to grandson, are we not justified in concluding that 
the source is at least partially reproduced? Stiles was exactly as 
near his source of information concerning John Russell as he was 
in the case of Richard Sperry. Mrs. Abigail Otis, a friend of Stiles 
and a member of his church at Newport in 1760 and for some years 
afterwards, was a granddaughter of Russell. Of her the historian 
says: "She was perfectly versed in the Russell history of the 
Judges, for whose memory she had the family veneration."- 2 

Sheldon was in error, if he thought that the angel story, as an 
explanation of the occurrence at Hadley, was an enlargement of 
the Hutchinson anecdote invented by Stiles. In the "Three 
Judges,"- 3 Stiles mentioned two men, the Rev. Mr. Fowler and 
Henry Hill, of Guilford, from whom he had the account. Probably 
the story was never taken seriously by those who told or heard it. 
John Fiske thought it "possibly might have been started with a 
touch of Yankee humor, as a blind."- 4 However that may have 
been, Stiles' gratuitous elaboration has been most unfortunate; 
because it has lent a certain plausibility to Sheldon's summary re- 
jection of the entire cycle of Goffe traditions. 

At the time Stiles was waiting the "History of the Three 
Judges," the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, nephew of Jonathan Edwards, 
was minister at Hadley. He had preached there since 1754, and 
was the third in succession after John Russell. Stiles visited Hop- 
kins and secured his help in the study of the local traditions. Forty 
years earlier, while tutors at Yale, they had become friends. Hop- 
kins wrote to Stiles on March 26th, 1793. The parts of his letter 
which are important in estimating the story of the Indian attack 
follow: "Since I received yours of the 11th ult. I have taken pains 

""Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles," Vol. Ill, pp. 168-171. 

""Introduction to the Study of History," Eng. Tran., p. 179. 

""Three Judges," p. 97. 

"Ibid, p. 67. 

""The Beginnings of New England," p. 218. 



to enquire of the oldest people among us, what they heard said, by 
the eldest persons in town since their remembrance, respecting 
Whalley and Goffe. * * * Most of whom I have enquired for 
tradition say, that while they were here the Indians made an assault 
upon the town; that on this occasion a person unknown appeared, 
animating and leading on the inhabitants against the enemy, and 
exciting them by his activity and ardour; that when the Indians 
were repulsed, the stranger disappeared — was gone — none ever 
knew where, or who he was." 25 If this account is accepted at face 
value, it is evidence tending to confirm the Leverett tradition. It 
was so regarded by Stiles and Judd. On the other hand, Sheldon, 
by an arbitrary assumption similar to his derivation of the Hutch- 
inson statement from the Leverett tradition noticed above, said 
that the "general tradition" of Hopkins was derived from Hutchin- 
son's history. 26 That explanation, however, is less than convincing. 
Hopkins was living at Hadley ten years before Hutchinson's work 
was published. He inquired of the "oldest people among us what 
they heard said by the eldest persons in town since their remem- 
brance. " It is too much to assume that Hopkins accepted a pseudo- 
tradition, developed from Hutchinson's account and less than thirty 
years old, for a real local tradition, in a town where he himself 
had lived for thirty-nine years. 

The dramatic character of a somewhat obscure record may lead 
a critic to question the reality of the occurrence; but it should 
not be a criterion for deciding that any tradition is false. Interest 
in itself is a factor of survival value. The good story is remem- 
bered while the mere fact may be forgotten. But fact may happen 
to be interesting; it may serve as material for a good story. Let 
us admit that the figure of the old Puritan general, rushing from his 
hiding place to warn the congregation and to lead them against the 
savages, may appeal to the imagination. This appeal should have 
no cogency, if presented as a proof of either the truth or error 
of the story. No one is likely to regard it as an affirmative evidence. 
But some one may say the story is too interesting to be true. The 
obvious answer is, that the historical value of any story depends on 
the sources of information, which in this case have already been 
considered, and on the correlation with known facts. 

Considering the facts, what is the probability that General Goffe 

■Judd, "History of Hadley," 2d cd., pp. 210-21 1. 



assisted in repulsing an attack of the Indians! He was living in 
Hadley at the time. Sheldon has proved from extant correspon- 
dence that the exile made a journey to Hartford some time in the 
following winter, and apparently lived there some years or until 
16S0. 2C Fiske says that the reason for this move might have been 
because he had been seen at the time of the attack. 27 It is certain 
that Goffe would not have hesitated on the ground of personal dan- 
ger, if he could have been of assistance to John Russell and the 
people of the village. Thirteen years before, he had said, if we may 
trust the Report of Kellond and Kirk, that with "two hundred 
friends that would stand by" him, he "would not care for Old or 
New England." 28 And from all we know of his life it is safe to infer 
that age could not weary nor misfortune impair the spirit of the 
Puritan soldier. 

The contention of Sheldon, which he sought to prove by "negative 
evidence," that there was no attack on Hadley at this time, is quite 
inconclusive. The silence of Hubbard, in his history of the war, is 
easily explained. It was necessary for the safety of Goffe and the 
prominent men who had aided his concealment. That it was not 
the only time Hubbard omitted the mention of facts for politic rea- 
sons, any one will remember who has read the part of his "History 
of New England" which deals with the period after the English 
Restoration. The letters we possess of that time and place were 
mostly directed to Increase Mather, or to other persons who were in 
the secret. Wherever possible, Mather would have reedited or de- 
stroyed any written allusion to the Judges. He would have done 
this not only out of regard for Russell's and Goffe 's safety but also 
for his own. During several years he had been the medium of cor- 
respondence between the exile and the latter 's family in England. 
Doubtless Solomon Stoddard at Northampton, Samuel Mather at 
Deerfield, and, quite probably, John Pynchon at Springfield, knew 
of Goffe 's presence at Hadley, and were careful not to refer to a 
subject so dangerous. Mather himself would not have written the 
sentence about the alarm, if Goffe had not been already safely re- 
moved to Hartford. Absence of letters can be but doubtful evidence 
of any negative proposition. Judd could find no local letters deal- 

"Ibid, Introd., p. xiv. 

'"The Beginnings of New England," p. 218. 

""'Publications of Prince Society," Vol. II, pp. 53-54. 



ing with the Indian attack at Hatfield which occurred, October 19th, 
about seven weeks after the affair at Hadley. 28 Fortunately, how- 
ever, the contemporary histories of Hubbard and the merchant of 
Boston have placed the Hatfield matter beyond the reach of destruc- 
tive criticism. 

Speaking of letters, there is one written in distant Rhode Island 
that should not remain unnoticed. On August 12th, 1676, William 
Harris wrote to Joseph Williamson in England. He gave a general 
account of the Indian war and the condition of New England. He 
justified the Puritan attack on the swamp fort. Describing the 
methods of the Xarragansett Indians before they openly fought 
the English, i. e., before December, 1675, he said: "Which shows 
they did all in deceit, yea, and all this while up in the country about 
Hadley and Deerfield and thereabout aided Philip, and others of 
their party, against the English to the doing of very great mis- 
chief." 30 This is admittedly the vaguest of allusion, yet if Hadley 
had escaped unscathed it is probable he would have written Spring- 
field and Deerfield rather than "Hadley and Deerfield.-' 

While we have no other direct evidence of what happened at 
Hadley on September first, we do know that the plan adopted by the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies was to use their forces in 
pursuing the Indians, instead of garrisoning the villages. That 
policy, though earnestly opposed by the officers in the field, was 
continued until after the burning of Springfield. Major Pynchon 
in a letter of August 22d, sent to Captain Allyn of Connecticut, 
begs that colony to leave Captain Watts to guard the river country; 
he also describes the great need of the presence of some prominent 
man at Hadley to command as circumstances should require. 31 Con- 
necticut records show that on August 31st the war council sent a 
letter to Major John Pynchon 'Ho give an account of Major Tal- 
cott's being sent up and commissioned to consult with him" (Pyn- 
chon). 33 What is more likely than that Captains Lathrop and Beers 
were called from Hadley to Springfield for a conference with Pyn- 
chon and Talcott, on the first of September? Watts had already 
returned to Connecticut; and Willard, if at any point west of 
Brookfield, would have been with Pynchon. There was a state of 

''"'History of Hadley," 2d ed., p. 147. 
""Collections of R. I. Historical Society," Vol. X, p. 168. 
"Sheldon, "History of Deerfield," Vol. I, p. 18. 
""Connecticut Records," Vol. II, p. 358. 



high tension all along the border. At two places, men were shot at 
by Indians on August 31st. 33 That eventful morning, Hadley was 
doubtless left unguarded. The inhabitants were gathered at a 
religious service. We can be sure that the enemy knew much about 
the movements of the English. Add to this the probability that the 
Hadley Indians were eager to attack their white neighbors. The net 
result is a stage set for the action which Judd found recorded by 
Mather and confirmed by tradition. It is probable that there will 
never be data available to give us detailed information concerning 
the events of that September day. However, the unexpected dis- 
covery of a letter or a record might make every thing plain. Should 
this occur, there is little doubt that completed history would say, 
there was a skirmish with the Indians and Goffe took part in the 

'Ibid, Vol. II, pp. 35S-9- 



By Charles A. Ixgraham, Cambridge, New York 


fefe'trf GjS&l T is now about a century since the religious and pliilo 

sophical cult known as Transcendentalism developed 
in New England, to become on the part of the majority 
of Americans a butt of ridicule, though to create in many 
of the best minds of the country a deep and abiding conviction of its 
truth and value, and to remain forever among the people and their 
institutions as a beneficent influence. It was not a new theory, but 
one which in essence had been taught by Plato, and having been 
adopted by the German philosopher Kant, had been appropriated 
and carried into England by Coleridge and Carlyle, and in the pages 
of their books transported to the thinkers of New England. Though 
Coleridge's "Aids to Reflection," 1825, and Carlyle 's "Sartor Re- 
sartus, " 1833, were the most largely influential in introducing Tran- 
scendentalism into this country, the ideas which it embraced perco- 
lated in through various channels: during the period 1817-1825, 
American students returning from the German University of Got- 
tingen, Edward Everett among others, Professor of Greek Litera- 
ture in Harvard, first disseminated here a knowledge of the writ- 
ings of Kant and Goethe; in 1825 Dr. Charles T. C. Follen, a dis- 
tinguished German scholar, was secured for Harvard as teacher of 
the German language; three years later he was given the chair of 
Ecclesiastical History, and was appointed Professor of German 
Literature in 1830, remaining in this capacity for a term of five 
years. He was a diligent man, contributing to magazines, deliver- 
ing lectures, and having prepared for the ministry, was pastor of 
Unitarian churches. Added to all this propagandism of the Ger- 
man language and ideas, was the publication in the "North Ameri- 
can Review" and "Christian Examiner" of translations of French 
and German writings, in which Transcendentalism was ventilated. 

It is a notable fact that the movement was confined to eastern 
New England, for the reason that its seeds were first and 



most prolifically sown in and about Boston, and it is still more 
interesting to learn that in no other part of the world did 
this philosophy develop to maturity and power, bestowing its 
full fruition, but in this limited territory. In Germany itself, and 
in England and France, it found no congenial soil for its propaga- 
tion, the ideas which it published being accepted by the cultured 
few, while the commonalty, living under the fixed and immutable 
conditions of old and rigid governments, were not of a mind to en- 
tertain the mystic and soaring views of the new philosophy; but in 
New England, with its free speech and liberal institutions, was a 
favorable field for the fructification of this wandering embryonic 
theory, searching through the world for a habitation, and it was 
embraced with avidity by ripe scholars and fervent Christians in 
whose minds and hearts it germinated and developed into great pro- 

For all things there are appropriate causes, and it is always in- 
teresting to inquire, particularly in phenomenal cases like this we 
are considering, as to what it may have been. At this time there 
pervaded the English-speaking world the material philosophy of 
Bacon and Locke, which held that matter was the essential sphere 
of creation, and that the mind could claim nothing that was not first 
derived through the senses from the visible surroundings. The 
utilitarian teachings of Benjamin Franklin encouraged this view of 
life, and his sayings, like "Diligence is the mother of good luck," 
were read, approved and practiced everywhere in the land, which 
was immersed in the practical labors of developing a new country. 
Religion and literature were saturated with this mundane and un- 
aspiring philosophy, while theology was, as represented in the dif- 
ferent sects, dead systems of cut, dried and labeled specimens of 
ecclesiastical opinions, stern, cold, and devoid of any attractive 
charm or sentiment. That real religion was neglected and that pub- 
lic worship had largely become a mechanical exercise without faith 
and love as essential elements, is testified to by the authoritative 
writers of that day. It can readily be understood that under such 
circumstances the liberal and inspiring ideas of "Aids to Reflection" 
and "Sartor Resartus" were welcomed and appropriated by the 
cultured and spiritually minded young men of New England, who 
embraced these hopeful and attractive views as a new evangel, and 
with consecrated and enthusiastic devotion set themselves to define, 



develop and apply to life and religion the transcendental philosophy. 

The "utilitarian views entertained generally in this country dur- 
ing the first half of the nineteenth century may be inferred from 
the commotion which these fresh ideas created when originally in- 
troduced among the people, for these teachings, read today, seem 
devoid of any revolutionary tendency in faith or practice, this 
philosophy having since been unconsciously assimilated and adopted 
by the more intelligent classes, and the old-time materialistic dead- 
ness having been sloughed off. As late as 1870, Transcendentalism 
was still the laughing-stock of many who could make nothing of it 
and who esteemed it but the idle vaporings of partially demented 
persons whose writings were outside the pale of practical under- 
standing. All this has changed, and though the cult has practic- 
ally been forgotten, insensibly the very principles for which it con- 
tended: the wider substitution of the spirit of religion for the let- 
ter and the law; the exaltation of the higher faculties of the mind 
and soul above the lower sphere of sensual knowledge and practice, 
— are carried out in every institution and activity of human life. 

It must be admitted, however, that there were grounds for the 
lack of respect which in its earlier history prevailed in New Eng- 
land for the new philosophy, for among its advocates were those 
who carried their ideas to extremes and reveled in mystical spheres 
of thought and imagination; there runs, indeed, through all the 
writings of its great teachers, this illusive element which Coleridge, 
as one possessing it, thus defines: "A mystic is a man who refers 
to inward feelings and experiences, of which mankind at large are 
not conscious, as evidences of the truth of any opinions." Another 
handicap to the growth of the cult was the fact that most of its 
leading sponsors were ministers of the Unitarian church, a denom- 
ination which was not popular with the masses of the country, yet 
it is remarkable to relate that from this alleged unpromising source 
emanated a national revival of a genuine spiritual Christianity on 
the dead works of formalism. 

It should be said to the credit of the Transcendental school of 
thought, that it not only developed in the midst of prevailing ma- 
terialistic and skeptical influences, but that it withstood later the 
subtle, insinuating and ably advanced theories of evolution as taught 
by Darwin, Spencer, Huxley, and other brilliant scientists, it all hav- 
ing a materialistic tendency, threatening at one time to undermine 



the foundations of the Christian church; but the etherial and spirit- 
ual truths which Transcendentalism had been spreading throughout 
the country held the people to the rule of faith, and, as time went on, 
evolution with its mighty array of profound learning came to be seen 
as a not at all destructive, but a tame and even unproved, conten- 
tion. On the other hand, Darwin, according to his own admission, 
believed that "science had nothing to do with Christ," and that he 
did "not believe that there ever has been a7iy revelation." He also 
states that his former fondness for poetry, music and pictures, had 
practically deserted him, a confession that affords a hint of what his 
works are capable of effecting in the soul of those who devote them- 
selves too unreservedly to them. And here note should be made 
of the fact that while Darwinism and evolution tend to minimize 
personality and to make of the individual a mere cog in the wheel 
of an ever-turning and irresistible fate, Transcendentalism, by its 
emphasis of the idea of the ever-developing godlike character in 
human nature, exalts the soul into a realm of illimitable honor, dig- 
nity, goodness, happiness, power and usefulness. 

But the disciples of Transcendentalism erred in following their 
ideas too far and in allowing themselves in their enthusiasm to be 
carried out of the paths of the common workaday world; many or 
most of them became recluses, though ever in essay, lecture and ser- 
mon expressing ardent humanitarian and philanthropic views ; but 
as a class they refrained from going down into the actual arena 
of reform and mingling in the dust, sweat and turmoil of contention, 
preferring to sit on the upper pleasant seats and to smilingly ob- 
serve the combat, while they volunteered wise counsel to the cham- 
pions of the right. The communistic institution which they organ- 
ized and maintained for several years at Brook Farm, segregated 
in an un-American manner from human society, evidences the retir- 
ing and intolerant spirit of its membership. The characterization 
of the Transcendentalists given by Father Isaac T. Hecker, an em- 
inent Catholic priest, is quoted here. Father Hecker when a young 
man was a member of the Brook Farm community, where he served 
as a baker, remaining about a year, and afterwards converted to 
the Catholic faith, became the founder of the Paulist Fathers. He 
says: "A Transcendentalist is one who has keen sight but little 
warmth of heart; one who has fine conceits, but is destitute of the 
rich glow of love. He is en rapport with the spiritual world, uncon- 



scions of the celestial one. lie is all nerve and no blood — colorless. 

. . . He prefers talking about love to possessing it ; as he pre- 
fers Socrates to Jesus. Nature is his church, and lie is his own 

Though there was some justification for these remarks, they are 
overdrawn and misleading, for these cultured men and women, 
possessed by exalted religious, social and political ideas, could not 
well do otherwise than view with sorrow and reprehension the sor- 
did and impoverished spiritual and intellectual life which prevailed 
around them, and entertain a desire to remove from its midst ; yet, 
despite this unchristian attitude, the Transcendentalists had among 
their number wonderful men, having splendid intellectual gifts, 
high and liberal spiritual endowments, heroic fearlessness, whose 
shining individualities refused to submit their opinions to the dic- 
tation of any man. In their day they were scorned, ridiculed and 
contemned, as clergymen they were driven from their charges as 
obnoxious and mischievous outcasts from the folds of Christianity, 
and is it to be thought strange that they would, from a human stand- 
point, long to hide themselves from the world and its bitterness! 
But these devotees to what they believed to be the truth, though they 
were fallible men with faults and extravagances of mind, had the 
wealth of heavenly worth in their lives and preachments, though 
admixed with the waste and dross incident to all human activity and 
rhetoric, and they left behind them lasting memorials of help and 
inspiration to posterity. 

Dr. William Ellery Channing may be said to be the father of both 
Unitarianism and Transcendentalism in the United States, and 
here it might be stated that Unitarianism is really not so destructive 
an agency as many believe it to be, for it stands more to designate a. 
protest against the old hard-and-fast theology than as a definite 
system of religious belief, made up as it is of a wide and versatile 
difference of opinion; it is, indeed, a church of great liberality of 
thought. Dr. Channing, though classed as a Unitarian, denied that 
he was a follower of any sect, but claimed to be a free lance and a 
seeker after more light ; it is, therefore, unfortunate that so many 
have banned his helpful and uplifting writings and those of his asso- 
ciated Transcendentalists, on account of their alleged heretical 
opinions, for these men, with all their shortcomings, were prophets 
who should be read by all. 



The first great event in the development of the Transcendental 
movement in America occurred in 1819, when Dr. Channing preach- 
ed a sermon in Baltimore at the ordination of Rev. Jared Sparks, in 
after-years the distinguished historian. This discourse, which is a 
clear and able setting forth of the new theology which more or 
less has since influenced all denominations, was circulated in pamph- 
lets throughout the country. Whatever criticisms may be made of 
it, this sermon has the breath of devotion and conviction, for Chan- 
ning was above all sincere and of an honest, gentle disposition, a 
man to whom contention was distasteful. Though he was not prop- 
erly speaking a Transcendentalist, he was intimate with its leaders, 
while his teachings, though not devoted particularly to that end, 
were yet in their independent spirit, lofty aspirations and spiritual 
zeal, in harmony with that school of philosophy and religion. 

The next epoch-making figure to arise in the history of Transcen- 
dentalism was Ealph Waldo Emerson, called the seer of the move- 
ment, a Unitarian clergyman, and descended from a line of eight 
Christian ministers. While yet a young man and serving as pastor 
of the Second Unitarian Church of Boston, he resigned in 1832 from 
the ministry and thereafter devoted himself to literature and lec- 
turing. It is perhaps not generally known that his reason for leav- 
ing his church was his opinion as to the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper being a permanent institution; he claimed that this conten- 
tion could not be shown from the Scriptures, and his parish not con- 
senting to discontinue its observance, he refused longer to minister to 
the congregation, a course which reflects no credit upon Emerson, 
inasmuch as a faithful pastor, in love with his work, would have 
submitted to the administration of an ordinance which is so highly 
prized by the mass of Christian people, though he personally con- 
sidered it unessential. He was by far the greatest exponent of 
Transcendentalism, and this not from any signal intellectual power, 
but from his mild and loveable nature, dreamy and attractive ideas 
of truth, goodness and beauty, his easy, graceful diction, and the 
many pregnant phrases which he was able to coin ; as a debater or 
as an originator of profound thought, he was a minus quantity, and, 
whether designedly or not, he scrupulously avoided the statement 
of any position which might give ground for contradiction and dis- 
pute; — it is impossible to quarrel with Emerson, for he dispenses 
in a kindly, benignant manner his poetic, beautiful and uplifting 



ideas, almost intoxicating the reader with his own mystically buoy- 
ant nature. Having therefore left no gaps in his harness through 
which an enemy's dart might penetrate, his philosophy lives on, and 
while not so impressive intellectually as those of the great system- 
makers like Kant, he has more readers and perhaps a wider influ- 

In 1838, Emerson gave an address before the senior class of Di- 
vinity College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in which he deplored the 
formalism of the religion and preaching of the day and dwelt on the 
transcendentalism of the individual soul, an address which was 
called at the time a great innovation, but which now excites no crit- 
icism nor opposition, for if we do not acquiesce in the doctrines set 
forth, we appreciate and respect the views and the sincerity of the 
author. One paragraph from this famous address is quoted as 
Emerson's own idea of the sphere and the method of the prophet: 

"It is very certain that it is the effect of conversation with the 
beauty of the soul, to beget a desire and need to impart to others the 
same knowledge and love. If utterance is denied, the thought lies 
like a burden on the man. Always the seer is a sayer. Somehow 
his dream is told; somehow he publishes it with solemn joy — some- 
times with pencil on canvas, sometimes with chisel on stone ; some- 
times in towers and aisles of granite, his soul's worship is builded; 
sometimes in anthems of indefinite music; but clearest and most 
permanent in words." 

Theodore Parker, of Roxbury, near Boston, also a Unitarian 
clergyman, was one of the audience that heard Emerson speak 
these words, and he was encouraged by the address to announce 
similar ideas which were fermenting within him. He was an unu- 
sually brilliant man who from a farm boy became an alumnus of 
Harvard College, attending it only at examinations, and laboring 
meantime in the field or engaged in teaching, and who while yet a 
young man had acquired an astonishing amount of learning. He 
was the greatest preacher of New England next to Channing, but 
departed furthest from the accepted theological beliefs of his day, 
so as to be in a manner banned by the Unitarian church and its min- 
istry. He was, however, a man of most attractive personality, re- 
ligiously devoted, witty and emotional, a fearless advocate of what 
he believed to be the truth, and was the most prominent of the 
Transcendentalists as a reformer, not hesitating to jeopardize his 



life in a good cause. After listening to Emerson's address, his 
"instinctive intuitions" clamored for expression, and when in 
1841 he was invited to deliver an ordination sermon in Boston, he 
chose for his theme "The Transient and Permanent in Christian- 
ity," in which discourse he held that the permanent dwelt in the 
ethical and spiritual teachings of Christ, and that these transcended 
the miraculous, — a contention that brought him immediately into 
illrepute with his denomination. 

It has been said of English Transcendentalism that Coleridge was 
its philosopher, Carlyle its preacher and man of letters, and Words- 
worth its poet; in America it might be said that Emerson was its 
philosopher, Bushnell its theologian, Parker its preacher, and 
Whitman its poet, As a thinker and developer of the transcendental 
ideas, Horace Bushnell was perhaps the ablest of all. A Congrega- 
tional minister, he, in common with other forward-looking clergy- 
men of New England, went far beyond the borders of the ecclesias- 
tical ideas of his denomination and suffered for his temerity. Whit- 
man exhibits most fully that almost arrogant individualistic bent of 
Transcendentalism, that utter disregard of all but divine authority 
when it antagonizes the high soul of man, in which this poet revels 
and which constitutes the weight of his message; but it is a power- 
ful one, of such almost superhuman strength that it enthralls the 
reader and infinitely exalts his conception of his own soul's great- 
ness and dignity. Thoreau was an author who embraced the 
Transcendental creed, or lack of creed; was an intimate friend 
of Emerson, and, while living an humble hermit life at Walden 
Pond, cultivated a proud and derisive character of mind, making 
friends with mice and chipmunks and despising the ordinary ideas 
and employments of human life. Both he and Whitman were 
semi-pagan in their philosophy, but wonderful in their reverence for 
the honor, dignity, independence and power of their own individual 
souls, — teachings which human society, cluttered up as it is with so 
much adventitious and distracting concomitants, would profit by 

Though Transcendentalism formulated no set system of philoso- 
phy or religion, and while no real treatises upon it have been written 
save a tract by Emerson and an address by Parker, and though no 
architectural memorial has ever been erected to its honor, there is 
a space of ground which was once owned and occupied by its enthu- 



plastic followers, but long since with, its proprietors passed almost 
into forgetfulness, — Brook Farm. Here, a few miles out of Bos- 
ton and upon pleasant meadow and upland, the Transcendentalists 
in the spring - of 1841 set up a social and agricultural institution, 
which though small in numbers was great in genius and in the wide- 
spread beneficent influence which it exercised. George Ripley, a 
graduate of Harvard and a Unitarian clergyman, was the leader in 
this scheme of introducing a rudimentary paradise upon earth, 
which was begun with a colony of only eighteen persons. The com- 
munity was composed from first to last of many rare and gifted 
men and women, but the fatal defect of the plan was that it did not 
fulfill the requirement of pure and undefiled religion, which consists 
not only in keeping oneself unspotted from the world, but also in 
visiting the fatherless and widows in their affliction, which latter 
duty can only be fulfilled by living midst the common life of men. 
Their aims, however, w r ere high, though in a manner selfish, the con- 
stitution which they adopted setting forth clearly the society's 
transcendental desires and purposes. The document is here pre- 
sented : 

"In order more effectually to promote the great purposes of 
human culture; to establish the external relations of life on a basis 
of wisdom and purity; to apply the principles of justice and love 
to our social organization in accordance with the laws of Divine 
Providence ; to substitute a system of brotherly cooperation for one 
of selfish competition ; to secure to our children and those who 
may be entrusted to our care, the benefits of the highest physical, 
intellectual and moral education, which in the progress of knowl- 
edge the resources at our command will permit; to institute an at- 
tractive, efficient and productive system of industry; to prevent 
the exercise of w T orldly anxiety, by the competent supply of our 
necessary wants ; to diminish the desire of excessive accumulation, 
by making the acquisition of individual property subservient to 
upright and disinterested uses ; to guarantee to each other forever 
the means of physical support and of spiritual progress; and thus 
to impart a greater freedom, simplicity, truthfulness, refinement 
and moral dignity to our mode of life ; — we, the undersigned, do 
unite in a voluntary association and adopt and ordain the following 
articles of agreement," etc. 

This is a statement of noble purposes, and though the community 
which adopted it had but a brief existence, it is pleasant to reflect 
that its constitution lives on and will never perish; that while the 



organization was premature, impolitic and monastic, and for those 
reasons resulted in failure, its principles were of such high and 
progressive quality that they are destined, like all truth and virtue, 
to eventually be adopted generally. Thus, the members of the 
Brook Farm Association were benefactors to mankind; they were 
brave souls, living beyond their times, who felt, as one of their num- 
ber, Rev. John S. Dwight, expressed it, "We do not properly live 
in these days ; but everywhere with patent inventions and complex 
arrangements are getting ready to live. The end is lost in the 
means ; life is smothered in appliances ; we cannot get to ourselves 
— there are so many external comforts to wade through. ' ' 

At the end of three years the experiment at Brook Farm seemed 
to have been successful and a prosperous future for it assured ; the 
Farm embraced 208 acres, and the assets of the society amounted to 
about $30,000; the school, which attracted students from outlying 
communities, was an established feature, and the Association was 
convinced "that their belief in a divine order of society had become 
an absolute certainty." The number of those dwelling on the Farm 
was never above one hundred and twenty persons at one time, and 
two hundred would embrace all those who were members of the 
community during the six years that it existed. At the time of 
which we are writing, the Farm and premises had been developed, 
additional buildings erected, and in every w T ay the community was 
flourishing; but at this juncture (in 1844) it was deemed advisable 
to introduce the French communistic plan at Brook Farm, which at- 
tractive and plausible scheme had been widely popularized in this 
country by Mr. Albert Brisbane. The Fourier system was put into 
operation at the Farm in the following year, and from that time 
the prosperity of the society began to decline ; it had departed 
somewhat from its original purpose, and was maintained at a loss; 
the final scene occurred with the burning of one of its principal 
buildings in the spring of 1847, and in the fall of the year the com- 
munity ceased to exist. 

Fourierism, which proved the undoing of Brook Farm, was per- 
haps the most enticing communistic scheme that has ever been de- 
vised, and caught in its meshes other distinguished people besides 
the members of this Association, Horace Greeley, among others, 
who listening to the siren voice of Brisbane, its enthusiastic advo- 
cate in this country, became its ardent disciple. Greeley was from 



time to time a visitor at Brook Farm, and possibly through his in- 
fluence, and the advocacy of Fourierism in a column of "The Tri- 
bune" (which Brisbane for a period had at his disposal), this plan 
was adopted there. The doctrines of Fourier had obtained a large 
following in the United States, numbering in 1846 no less than about 
200,000 persons, and several newspapers opposed to the movement 
began an attack upon the new socialistic scheme which proposed to 
revolutionize human society and its institutions for their better- 
ment throughout the world: Greeley and "The Tribune," its chief 
sponsors, replied with zeal and ability, till after a war of words ex- 
tending through six months, the strife ended with the victory evi- 
dently in the hands of Greeley's antagonists. This notable but for- 
gotten debate was afterwards republished in a book. 

Another institution quite as widely known and talked of in its 
day as Brook Farm and Fourierism, was a periodical issued by that 
community and called "The Dial," the quarterly organ of the 
Transccndentalists and a magazine of very high standards, devoted 
to general literature, art, science, sociology, philosophy and re- 
ligion. "The Dial" ran for four years with a circulation never 
reaching to five hundred copies, the first issue, with Margaret Ful- 
ler as editor, appearing in April, 1840. Miss Fuller was a noble 
and extraordinarily brilliant woman, "almost Christian," of a singu- 
lar and arrogant personality, yet having attractions which only her 
contemporaries who knew her could appreciate. An enlightening 
view of the purposes of the magazine is obtained through its salu- 
tatory, a portion of which is quoted : 

"We invite the attention of our countrymen to a new design. . 

. . Many sincere persons in New England reprobate that rigor 
of our conventions of religion and education which is turning us to 
Btone, which renounces hope, which looks only backward, which asks 
only such a future as the past, which suspects improvement and 
holds nothing so much in horror as new views and the dreams of 
youth. No one can converse much with different classes of society 
in New England without remarking the progress of a revolution. It 
is in every form a protest against usage and a search for principles. 
If our Journal share the impulse of the time, it cannot now prescribe 
its own course. It cannot foretell in orderly propositions what it 
shall attempt. Let it be one cheerful, rational voice amid the din 
of mourners and polemics." 

"The Dial" started with a subscription list of but thirty names 
or more, and throughout its career it had a struggling existence, 



though for a part of the time having Emerson for its editor and for 
contributors such able writers as Theodore Parker, George Ripley, 
James Freeman Clarke and William Ellery Channing. Its mu- 
sical critic was John S. Dwight, while Christopher P. Cranch served 
as editor of the art department. All these were clergymen whose 
souls aspired beyond the boundaries of the formal religious ideas of 
their day, and all of them afterwards had distinguished careers. In 
the four now-scarcely-opened volumes of this unique and brilliant 
periodical are embalmed the rare prose and poetry of these gifted 
men and women, who lived not for the more or less selfish ends 
which prompt the most of humanity, but for ideals. At the time of 
"The Dial's" suspension, George William Curtis wrote to a friend 
what might stand as its benediction. He said: " 'The Dial' stops. 
Is it not like the going out of a star? Its place was so unique in 
our literature ! All who wrote and sang for it were clothed in white 
garments ; and the work itself so calm and collected, though spring- 
ing from the same undismayed hope which furthers all our best re- 
forms. But the intellectual worth of the times will be told in other 
ways, though 'The Dial' no longer reports the progress of the 

No wonder that Curtis deplored the demise of "The Dial," for in 
its pages as a fledgeling he had first tried his literary wings ; here, 
too, Thoreau, and Charles A. Dana, the great editor of "The New 
York Sun," together with other authors, began their literary ca- 
reers which ever reflected credit on Brook Farm and "The Dial." 

The consideration of Transcendentalism, though foreign to the 
spirit of the day, is nevertheless a study that is sorely needed; if 
the good people of Brook Farm in their enthusiastic devotion flew 
on too wide a tangent in the direction of the ideal, we of this genera- 
tion are even more deluded in our deflection towards the material, 
and, of the two errors, that of the Transcendentalists was the les- 
ser, for at least their aims were very high. Their great mistake 
lay in neglecting the actual world and in segregating themselves 
from society — they provided no ballast, and hence soared too high. 
But their hermit-like predilection had an element of reason, though 
carried too far; like the life in monasteries, there was in their 
practice at Brook Farm a modicum of truth, for it is to the quiet 
and self-contained soul that wisdom speaks, and not to him bur- 
dened and absorbed with, the things of life ; he must dispossess him- 



self of the crowds of worldly thoughts and sights, and render his 
mind still and neutral, that his higher intellectual and spiritual fac- 
ulties may have room to exercise themselves. "Be still," say the 
Scriptures, "and know that I am God." 

Note — The following are the more important books consulted: "Transcendental- 
ism in New England," by Octavius B. Frothingham, New York, 1876; "Brook Farm," 
by Lindsay Swift, New York, 1900; "The Poets of Transcendentalism," edited by 
George W. Cooke, Boston, 1903; "Transcendentalism," (French) by William Girard, 
University California, 1916; "The Magazine in America," by Algernon Tassin, New 
York, 1 91 6. 


Henry Glover 

Glover Arms — Sable, a chevron erminites between three crescents argent. 

Crest — An eagle displayed argent, charged on the breast with three spots of erminites. 

a citizen of St. Louis, Missouri, whose activities were 
centered in the past generation and whose busy life 
was richly productive of beneficial result to his com- 
munity, this record is dedicated. Henry Glover, in the 
time between his coming to St. Louis from his Cincinnati home in 
1847, until his death, rose to prominent industrial and commercial 
place, and caused his influence, strong and uplifting, to be felt in 
many circles of his adopted city. Mr. Glover was one of a group 
of progressive, public-spirited men whose unselfish service and 
hopeful vision are of value even in the St. Louis of today, and this 
recognition is eminently fitting. 

Glover is an ancient name in England, and, from what has been 
gathered of its origin, is indisputably Saxon. In some of the oldest 
counties, as Warwickshire and Kent, it was at a very ancient date 
written Golofre — then Glove, and in the middle of the fourteenth 
century it was written as it now is, Glover. It has undergone no 
change since, excepting that some of the earliest settlers of New 
England occasionally wrote it with a "u," instead of a "v," as 
may be sometimes seen in the oldest documents, viz., Glouer; al- 
though there is no record of the name being spelled in that way 
in England at any time. It was a corruption which soon went into 
disuse, and the name written Glover again according to the Eng- 
lish orthography, and has continued to be so written to the present 

Lancashire is one of the northern counties of England, and the 
town of Prescot, in that county, is one of its most extensive towns. 
It is bounded on the south by the river Mersey; on the west by 
Walton parish; on the north-northwest by Ormskirk parish; and 
on the east by the parish of Warrington. Its extreme length is 
twelve miles, from Dalton on the south to Mumford on the north; 
its breadth is eight miles. It is situated in the western part of the 




county, about ten miles from Liverpool in the same county, and two 
hundred and twenty-five miles from London by railway. It was 
divided into parishes, one of which, Rainhill, was the birthplace of 
John Glover, who in 1G30 emigrated, with others under Governor 
Winthrop, to New England, and became the American ancestor of 
numerous descendants. In 18th Edward III., William Daniel held 
the towns of Dutton, Rainhill and Eccleston. His possession of 
them was temporary, and in 12th Henry IV. they were held by Alan 
do Norrys, under the Baron of Bolton. The Ecclestons for a long 
time were Lords of the Manor of Barton Head, in Dutton. The 
family of Norrys acquired Rainhill in the time of Edward II., and 
held the manors of Dutton, Rainhill and Eccleston, under Thomas, 
Earl of Lancaster, who held the Duchy in the time of Henry VIII., 
and sold portions of it in the time of Elizabeth to Thomas Glover, 
Esq., father of the American emigrant. Thomas Glover conveyed 
these lands to his eldest son, Mr. John Glover, of Rainhill, after- 
wards of Dorchester and Boston, who in 1652 by deed of gift con- 
veyed them to his eldest son and heir apparent, "Mr. Thomas Glover, 
of London, merchant. The Glovers were not early in Lancashire. 
The county history does not give any account of them until nearly 
the close of the sixteenth century. There is a tradition which has 
come down among some branches of his descendants, from father to 
son through long generations, which fixes their original county to be 
that of Warwick, and the city of Coventry, in that county, one of 
their original places of abode. This tradition has been attested 
and confirmed by Heralds. 

Robert Glover, who suffered martyrdom in September, 1555, no- 
ticed by Fuller in his "Worthies," had brothers John, William and 
Thomas, and possessed estates in Monceter, Baxterly, and other 
places in the County of Warwickshire. 

Thomas Glover, father of the first American founder, lived in 
Rainhill, Prescot, Lancashire, England, from the time of his mar- 
riage to Margery Deane, daughter of Thomas Deane, February 10, 
1594, to his death, December 13, 1619. 

1. John Glover, the eldest son of Thomas and Margery (Deane) 
Glover, was born in Rainhill parish, Prescot, Lancaster county, 
England, August 12, 1600, and died in Boston, in New England, "11, 
12, 1653," in his fifty-fourth year. By his father's will he came 
into possession of large estates in England, situated in Rainhill, 



Eccleston, Knowlesby, and other places. Being the eldest son, he 
inherited a double portion by right of primogeniture, and was named 
as an executor, with his mother, to carry out the provisions of that 
will, although at that time (1619) he was not of full age. He ap- 
pears to have attained the age of manhood at Rainhill, living on his 
estates there, and married, about 1625, Anna, whose surname is 
unknown. He had three children born and baptized in that parish, 
the last in 1629. Previous to that, in 1628, his name appears on 
the records of the "London Company," organized at London in 
1628. He was a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of London, established there at a very early date, and 
was a captain of that company. He was also a member of a lodge 
of Free Masons, and in fellowship with them before his emigration. 
He was sometimes called "the Worshipful Mr. Glover." 

It is recorded that the Dorchester Company came in the Mary and 
John, which set sail from England the 20th of March, 1629-30, com- 
manded by Captain Squeb, and who is said to have arrived on the 
coast of North America the 31st day of May, 1630. The manner 
in which he treated his passengers and deceived them by putting 
them on shore at Nantasket, when he had promised to land them at 
Charlestown, is too well known to require any detail here. Some 
of them took boats and found their way to Charlestown, and others, 
who remained at Nantasket, found out a way to Dorchester Neck, 
adjoining a place called by the Indians Mattapan, to which they gave 
the name of New Dorchester, and commenced a settlement about 
the first of June. The place was afterwards called Dorchester Plan- 
tation. The same writer says the Glovers were settled here a month 
before Governor Winthrop and the ships that came with him ar- 
rived. Mr. Glover came to New England in the Mary and John. 
It has been questioned by some as to the ship in which he came over, 
probably on account of a note of Mr. Frothingham, in his "History 
of Charlestown, " by which it might appear that he arrived earlier. 
Frothingham, in a list of those who stayed and became inhabitants 
of Charlestown in the year 1629, gives the names of Increase Nowell, 
Esq., Mr. William Aspinwall, Mr. Richard Palsgrave, Edward Con- 
verse, William Penn, William Hudson, William Blackenbury, and 
Mr. John Glover. He also says that Mr. Glover removed to Dor- 
chester, where he became a prominent man, being a selectman and 
a representative from 1637 to 1652. He also writes that Mr. Glover 



died in 1654, which docs not agree with Dorchester Town Records. 
The above from Frothingham has led many to doubt of his coming 
over in the Mary and John with the Dorchester Company; but he 
was always associated with them, his interests were identified with 
theirs, and he served them in a public capacity until his death, al- 
though he had removed to Boston. His name stands among a list 
of inhabitants at the incorporation of the town of Dorchester in 1631, 
according to "Blake's Annals." When the church was reorganized 
there (in 1636, Richard Mather, pastor), he and his wife Anna were 
among the first signers to the covenant. He may have remained in 
Charlestown until that time, but there is no evidence of it. 

Mr. Glover was made freeman in England before his emigration, 
and took the oath of allegiance, which exempted him from that cere- 
mony after his arrival here. The prefix of "Mr." he brought with 
him, which was then one of honor and dignity, and he has been more 
generally designated by that than any other title. His armorial 
bearings were those granted to Thomas Glover, Esq., of the Body of 
King James I., who was son of Thomas Glover, of Coventry, in 
Warwickshire, knighted 17th of August, 1606. Mr. Glover was 
called a godly and upright man. His religion was that of a strict 
Non-conformist, or Puritan, which appears to have been the ruling 
motive of his life, and led him to leave his English home and forego 
all the comforts and conveniences of an English life to settle on the 
cold, uncomfortable, cheerless shore of New England. His life af- 
ter his arrival and settlement at Dorchester was evidently one of 
unceasing action and service to the colony. During a period of 
nearly eighteen years his name appears not only as a public officer 
in Dorchester, but in other towns among those who sat in judgment. 
In Salem, Charlestown, Cambridge, and at Barnstable and other 
places in the Plymouth Colony, he was frequently called in council 
in cases which required judicial decisions. John and Anna Glover 
were the parents of five children. 

II. Nathaniel Glover, fourth son of John and Anna Glover, was 
born in 1630-31, died in Dorchester, May 21, 1657, and was buried 
in the ancient burial ground of that town. There are but few acts 
of his short life to be found on record. He attained the age of 
manhood in Dorchester, and succeeded to the homestead at the time 
of his father's removal to Boston in 1652. On the 22nd of the 3rd 
month he was admitted to the church there, in full communion. On 



May 3, 1654, he took the freeman's oath, and was recorded among 
the New England freeman. In 1G55 he was chosen one of the select- 
men of Dorchester, and again in 1656 and 1657. He was appointed 
with others in 1655 to settle the bounds between Dorchester and 
Dedham ; and was chosen to fill other offices in the town. Pie mar- 
ried, in 1652, Mary Smith, born at Toxteth Park, near Liverpool, 
Lancashire, England, July 20, 1630, died in Barnstable, July 29, 
1703, aged seventy-three years, daughter of Quartermaster John 
Smith and his first wife, Mary Ryder, of Toxteth Park. Mary 
(Smith) Glover married (second), March 2, 1659-60, Hon. Thomas 
Hinckley, of Barnstable, afterwards governor of the Plymouth Col- 
ony for many years. 

III. Nathaniel (2) Glover, son of Nathaniel (1) and Mary (Smith) 
Glover, was born in Dorchester, 30 : 1 : 1653, and baptized 3:2: 
1653, by Rev.- Richard Mather. He died at Newbury farm in that 
town, January 6, 1723-4, aged seventy-one years, and was buried in 
the westerly part of the ancient burial yard. At the age of seven 
years, in 1660, he was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, 
Mr. Habackuk Glover, of Boston, who succeeded his mother in that 
appointment at the time of her marriage to Governor Hinckley, and 
removed to .Barnstable. He was placed at school in Boston, and 
resided in the family of his grandmother, Mrs. Anna Glover, and 
after her decease in 1670 with his uncle and guardian until about the 
time of his own marriage. In 1672-3, at the age of twenty years, 
he was married to Hannah Hinckley, of Barnstable, and occupied 
the homestead at Dorchester, a part of which was his inheritance, 
although on account of his minority the estate remained as yet un- 
divided. In 1677, the second day of his eighth month, he was ad- 
mitted to the church at Dorchester; also "Airs. Hannah, the wife 
of Mr. Nathaniel Glover." In 1683 he was elected constable, and 
was afterwards chosen to serve as selectman, continuing in that 
office a few years, the last in 1715. Hannah Hinckley, the wife of 
Nathaniel Glover, was born in Barnstable, April 15, 1650, and died 
in Dorchester, at Newbury farm, April 30, 1730, in her eighty-first 
year, and was buried on the westerly side. She was the fourth 
daughter of Governor Thomas Hinckley by his first wife, Mary 
Richards, granddaughter of Thomas and Welthean (Loring) Rich- 
ards, of the early settlers of Weymouth. 

IV. Naihatiiel (3) Glover, eldest son of Nathaniel (2) and Han- 



nah (Hinckley) Glover, was born at the Dorchester homestead, No- 
vember 10, 1676, baptized the 13th of the same month, and died 
in London, England, March 13, 1726, in his fiftieth year. He left 
a widow and six children. He is said to have been remarkable for 
his early piety. At the age of ten years he voluntarily gave himself 
to the watch and care of the church in Dorchester, and was admitted 
as a member in full communion at the age of twenty years. "Since 
August," say the church records, "unto this instant, Dec, 1696, 
the following persons, having been proved by the pastor as to their 
knowledge and experience, and by the congregation as to conversa- 
tion, publicly took hold on the covenant, viz., young Nathaniel Glover 
(jun.), Mary Glover," and others. During his minority he was en- 
gaged in the tanning business, carried on by his father on the Glover 
estate. At the age of twenty-four years, November 13, 1701, he was 
married to Kachael Marsh, of Braintree, by the Worshipful Mr. 
Wilson. She was the daughter of Alexander and Martha Marsh, 
of Braintree, and was born there 12 : 2 : 1673. Soon after her mar- 
riage she was admitted to join the church at Dorchester. The rec- 
ords inform us: "Among those names of such as were examined, 
allowed and propounded before the Church for laying hold on the 
Covenant, Feb. 3, 1701-2, were Nathaniel Glover's wife Rachael, 
Elizabeth and Hannah Glover." She died April 10, 1752, aged 
seventy-nine years. They had seven children, all baptized in the 
church with which they were in full communion. Nathaniel Glover 
was a man of property and influence, filled public offices with ability 
and honor, and represented his fellow-citizens in important capac- 
ities. Chief of these was as agent to present the case of the original 
proprietors against the new proprietors before the King, and he 
died in England after obtaining a hearing before the King in Coun- 

V. Alexander Glover, second son of Nathaniel (3) and Rachael 
(Marsh) Glover, was born at the homestead in Dorchester, Novem- 
ber 13, 1710, baptized November 26, 1710, by the Rev. John Dan- 
forth, died in Dorchester, March 15, 1770, in his sixtieth year, and 
was buried in the ancient burial yard. 

He was married, February 5, 1732, to Sarah White, daugh- 
ter of Edward and Patience (Bird) White, by Rev. Jonathan Bow- 
man. She was born in Dorchester, April 3, 1711, and died there De- 
cember 3, 1790, in her eightieth year. He occupied the homestead 

i8 7 


with his mother, and at her decease succeeded to his inheritance. It 
has been said of him that he possessed in a remarkable degree those 
admirable and desirable traits of character and habits of life which 
distinguished his father, although not called to so public and active 
a life. He was a member of the Dorchester church, and adorned 
his profession by a quiet, sober, and useful life. He occasionally 
served in town offices. On May 13, 1746, his name is enrolled among 
a list of elderly persons qualified to serve as grand jurors for the 
county of Suffolk ; in 1741 he is enrolled among those capable of 
bearing arms and liable to appear at alarm, "and living within the 
limits of the First Independent Company in the Town of Dorches- 
ter, whereof Col. Estes Hatch is Captain." 

VI. Alexander (2) Glover, second son of Alexander (1) and Sa- 
rah (White) Glover, was born in Dorchester, February 1, 1741, and 
he died there July 13, 1813, in his seventy-third year. He 
succeeded his father in the possession of the Dorchester homestead, 
formerly belonging to John Glover, Esq., of Dorchester and Boston, 
and was the fifth in the direct line of succession from him. He was 
engaged in the lumber trade for many years. He was an honorable 
and worthy citizen, inheriting the virtues and noble traits which 
characterized his ancestors; and was of a mild and genial tempera- 
ment, upright and honest. He married, December 28, 1769, Rev. 
Jedediah Adams officiating, Hannah Pope, of Stonington. She was 
the daughter of Dr. Ralph and Rebeckah (Stubbs) Pope, of Stoning- 
ton, and was born there June 1, 1744; she died in Dorchester, Sep- 
tember 28, 1825, in her eighty-second year. 

VII. James Glover, son of Alexander (2) and Hannah (Pope) 
Glover, was born at the Glover homestead in Dorchester, January 
21, 1785, and became an eminent and successful merchant of Boston. 
He maried, December 14, 1809, Jane Beale, daughter of Joseph and 
Lillie (Davis) Beale. James Glover died January 19, 1869, his 
wife April 15, 1S62. They were the parents of six children. 

VIII. Henry Glover, son of James and Jane (Beale) Glover, was 
born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, September 7, 1808, and was 
educated in that place. Entering business life, he was for a time 
located in Boston, in 1S47 coming west to St. Louis, Missouri, where 
the remainder of his active life was past. In St. Louis, Mr. Glover 
entered the industrial field as a glass manufacturer, later devoting 
his attention to mercantile pursuits as the proprietor of a grocery 


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store. This was followed by association with John Howe in the 
saddlery business, but he afterward returned to glass manufactur- 
ing and made that his sphere of endeavor thereafter. His plant be- 
came one of the important establishments of the city, manufactur- 
ing a product of high quality under the most improved methods, and 
Mr. Glover attained a high degree of success as a manufacturer. His 
important standing in glass making circles was largely attributable 
to the fact that from one achievement he pressed constantly forward 
to another, carrying with him, through the force of his energy and 
enthusiasm, all of his associates in an enterprise. He possessed an 
apparently limitless capacity for work, introduced efficient systems 
in all departments, and gave to his business a close attention and 
personal supervision that could not fail to accomplish desired re- 

To all civic matters Mr. Glover gave interested attention, and his 
support was. ever on the side of right and progress. During the 
Civil War he was an unfaltering believer in the Union cause, and 
supported the Federal Government at every turn. Mr. Glover, in 
the midst of a life busily occupied with industrial affairs, found time 
for devoted service in philanthropic and charitable organizations, 
and was a leader in such work in St. Louis. 

Mr. Glover was one of St. Louis' citizens who had lived through 
a period witnessing the beginning of great development and prog- 
ress in the history of the city, and in many of the movements that 
marked its onward and upward march he was privileged to bear an 
important part of the civic burden. His participation in an enter- 
prise, whether in business relations or in public, lent an aspect of 
cheer and courage, for he was essentially an optimist, with faith in 
his fellows and with full assurance that all things work together for 

Henry Glover married, in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 14, 1833, 
Susan Dana Flintham, born in Philadelphia, June 2, 1806, died in 
St. Louis, Missouri, January 23, 1885, daughter of William and 
Mary (Bradford) Flintham (see Bradford line). They were the 
parents of the following children: Eliza L., born July 12, 1834, 
died November 2, 1897; Mary, born July 12, 1834, died in infancy; 
Henry, Jr., born October 17, 1836, died August 11, 1892, in St. 
Louis ; Jane Beale, born August 31, 1838, a resident of St. Louis ; Wil- 
liam Flintham, born May 9, 1841, died August 7, 1842, in St. Louis. 



Henry Glover died in St. Louis, September 7, 1867. This record 
has spoken of him as a business man of distinguished parts, a citi- 
zen helpful and faithful. There remains only to speak of him in his 
relation to his home, where the nobility of his character and the 
generosity of his spirit had full play, and where, in the creation and 
enjoyment of happiness, the finest qualities of his mind and heart 
were shown. 

Henry Glover, Jr., was the organizer of the News Boys' Home, 
having associated with him in this splendid work Mr. Garland, Mr. 
Elliot, and other prominent citizens of St. Louis, and he became 
president of that institution. Its purpose was to supply insofar as 
possible the atmosphere and advantages of home life to those future 
citizens whom circumstances had deprived of such advantages, and 
to lighten for them the burden of self-support at such an early age. 
Few institutions in any city have realized so fully the end for which 
they were created, and the splendid record of the News Boys' Home 
was due in large measure to the unflagging loyalty and energetic 
leadership of Henry Glover, Jr. Mr. Glover was an uncompromis- 
ing Republican, and a member of the Unitarian church. 

(The Bradford Line). 

Arins — Argent, on a fesse sable three stags' heads erased or. 

Crest — A stag's head erased or. 

Motto — Nee teincre, nee timide (Neither rashly, nor timidly). 

This branch of the noted Bradford family was founded in Amer- 
ica by William Bradford, born in Leicestershire, England, in 1660, 
who was baptized in Burwell Church, Leicestershire, in May, 1663. 
He was a son of William Bradford, a printer, who was buried in 
Burwell Church, October 9, 1668, and Ann, his wife, who was buried 
June 28, 1683. The parents did not come to America. William 
Bradford left England September 1, 1682, in the ship Welcome, 
and arrived here October 27 of the same year. He was the first 
printer in Pennsylvania. In 1693 he moved to New York, and was 
appointed crown printer to the government. He printed the "New 
York Gazette" in October, 1725, the first newspaper in the colony, 
and in 1728 assisted in building the first paper mill in North Amer- 
ica, on Wissahickon creek. He was a vestryman of Trinity Church, 
New York, died May 23, 1752, and was buried in Trinity Church- 
yard. He married (first) April 2, 1685, Elizabeth Sowle, who died 
July, 1735; married (second) a widow Smith. 


r .-,, ..„..,,„..._-,,, ,-„_..- -„..,.^ J ,„-^-.^ r . rr .^^ r ™,— ^ — ....-._ r-™~ ■• - --•- 



- . -_r..^. --.::.-.- --:>:■ . ■.- ... .-.- . 


/. William (2) Bradford, son of William (1) Bradford, was born 
about 1GS8, and died in New York, prior to January 24, 1759. He 
moved to New York in 1693, was a printer, and for a time followed 
the sea. In his will, probated January 24, 1759, he styled himself 
' ' pewterer. " He married, November 25, 1716, Sytie, baptized April 
14," 1695, died after June 5, 1760, daughter of Abraham Santvoort 

II. Colonel William (3) Bradford, son of William (2) Bradford, 
was born in New York, January 19, 1721 (O.S.). He resided in Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania, where he was a printer and publisher, and 
died September 25, 1791, aged seventy-two years. He married, Au- 
gust 15 (or 18), 1742, Rachel Budd, born January 7, 1720 (O.S.), 
died June 26, 1780. 

III. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Bradford, son of Colonel Wil- 
liam (3) Bradford, was born May 4, 1745, in Philadelphia, and died 
there May 7, 1838, aged ninety-three years. He was a printer and 
publisher, and during the Revolution was captain of a militia com- 
pany, also deputy commissary general of prisoners in the American 
army, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He married, November 
23, 1768, Mary Fisher, who died November 18, 1805. 

IV. Mary Bradford, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas 
Bradford, was baptized in the Second Presbyterian Church, Phila- 
delphia, and died October 2, 1806, aged thirty-three years. She 
married, February 3, 1803, William Flintham, born in 1706, died 
February 28, 1838. Issue: 1. William Flintham, born July 12, 
1804, died in 1850; married, in October, 1839, Ann Eliza Weber. 
2. Susan Dana Flintham, born June 2, 1806, died January 23, 1885, 
in St. Louis, Missouri ; married, November 14, 1833, Henry Glover 
(q.v.). 3. Thomas Bradford Flintham, married Miss Doaks, both 


The Presidential Election 

HE presidential election of 1920 brought about conditions 
without parallel in the history of the nation. Both the 
leading candidates were natives of the same State, and 
their lives in large degree ran in parallel channels. Both 
were journalists, and were equally successful in their field, both 
financially and in the morals and ethics which distinguished their 
professional work. Both rendered public services of substantial 
worth, and bringing honor to themselves. The story of their lives 
is well worth the telling in these pages in comprehensive form. 

Warren G. Harding, man of many activities and strong character, 
a successful journalist, a statesman of rank, having seen service in 
the Legislature of his State, and as United States Senator, and 
whose fortune it was to be elected to the presidency of the United 
States, was born November 25, 1865, near Blooming Grove, Morrow 
county, Ohio, son of Dr. George T. and Phoebe (Dickerson) Hard- 
ing. In the paternal line he is descended from a Colonial family 
coming originally from Scotland, settling first in Connecticut, whence 
they removed to Pennsylvania, where some of its members were 
slain in the Wyoming Massacre by the Indians ; others fought in the 
Eevolutionary War. The mother of Warren G. Harding came from 
the Van Kirks, an ancient and well known Holland family. 

Young Harding was born on his grandfather's farm, where his 
parents were then residing. He was the eldest of eight children, 
some of whom attained more than ordinary distinction— one as a 
physician, one as a school instructor, and one as a missionary in a 
foreign field. His youthful life was one of honest and health-giving 
toil — felling trees, splitting rails, and ordinary farm work with 
plough in spring, and driving or following the reaper in harvest 
time. His education began in the village school, and at the age of 
fourteen he entered Ohio Central College at Iberia. Dependent en- 
tirely upon himself, on several occasions he was obliged to suspend 
his studies and go out to earn the means to pay his way. At one 
time he painted barns, at another he drove a team, helping to grade 



a railroad roadbed. Finally, however, he graduated, ranking high 
in scholarship. During his college days he served as editor of the 
college journal, in which work he showed real ability and displayed 
a liking for journalism that contributed to his future in no small de- 
gree. Following this bent, he worked at odd times in the village 
printing office, and became an expert compositor; this was before 
the days of the linotype, and to this day he carries as a "luck piece" 
the printer's rule he used while "sticking type." For a short time 
he taught a country school, and he played an instrument in the vil- 
lage band. 

When he was nineteen years old, his parents removed to Marion, 
Ohio, which was destined to be his own place of residence to the 
present time. Here was published "The Star," a small newspaper 
in a town of four thousand people. It was in an almost moribund 
condition, but young Harding yearned to possess it, and he made the 
purchase, aided by his father's credit. To give it a linn establish- 
ment was a real task, but he accomplished it, at the cost of much la- 
bor, performing at one time or other every detail of printing office 
work from that of "devil" to that of business manager and editor. 
At this time (1921), Mr. Harding still its principal owner, with his 
permanent employees as stockholders, "The Star" is at the height 
of newspaper prosperity, and is not purchasable at any price. Dur- 
ing all the years of his connection with it, and in which the popula- 
tion of the city was octupled, he made it a prime factor in inviting 
and encouraging local development along all lines of industrialism, 
aiding all such financially to the extent of his ability, and he was at 
one time or other a director in most of such establishments. In its 
more extended field, "The Star" held to lofty ideals; conservative, 
it yet has been fearless in its support of any vital question, and its 
influence may be somewhat measured from the fact that it has the 
reputation of enjoying the largest circulation of any newspaper in 
a city of thirty thousand in the Middle West. 

Mr. Harding's employees have never embarrassed him with a 
strike, and the reason for this immunity may be discerned in his 
policy as an employer, which is embodied in one of his addresses on 
}ue subject of the relations between capital and labor : 

"In my private pursuits, as a newspaper publisher, I am an em- 
ployer of Organized Labor, having never known a controversy, and 



I believe most cordially in rational unionism. Organization and col- 
lective bargaining, under wise leadership, have done more to ad- 
vance the cause of Labor than all other agencies combined, and any 
one who thinks to destroy sane unionism, by legislation or other- 
wise, is blind to conditions firmly established and is insensible to a 
public sentiment which is deliberate and abiding. But the advance- 
ment of unionism is one thing and the domination of organized labor 
is quite another. I subscribe to the first and oppose the latter. I 
do not believe in any class domination, and the long fight to remove 
the domination of capital, now fairly won, is lost if labor domination 
is substituted in its stead." 

Mr. Harding's public life began with his election to the Legisla- 
ture of his State, and his service in that body was so well regarded 
that he was returned for a second term, serving temporarily as lieu- 
tenant-governor, and declining a renomination. During this period 
he was equipping himself most efficiently for the higher position to 
which he was called in 1914, that of United States Senator. This 
was two years after the unfortunate schism in the Republican party 
in 1912 which resulted in Democratic success in the State of Ohio. 
That in his case there was a thorough cementing of the opposing 
factions, is evidenced by the fact that Mr. Harding became Senator 
by a plurality of more than one hundred thousand, he running sev- 
enty-three thousand ahead of the next highest candidate on his 
party ticket. In his new and more distinguished position he found 
his previous service in the Legislature to have served a good pur- 
pose. His liberal fund of general information and his wide experi- 
ence with men and affairs, gave him a comprehensive grasp of the 
problems with which the national legislative body has to deal, and 
on his first appearance in his senatorial place it became apparent 
to his compeers that he was no novice, but one well qualified to ren- 
der valuable service, and his utterances on the floor invariably com- 
manded respectful attention. Among other assignments, his prin- 
cipal one was to the Committee on Foreign Relations — one of su- 
preme importance when war broke out on foreign soil, with its be- 
ginnings of complications with regard to the United States. From 
the first dawning of questions of momentous national importance, 
Senator Harding never failed to speak and act up to the full cour- 
age of his convictions, no matter how serious the opposition. He 
was among the earliest to advocate preparedness for war, while 
others were demanding any sacrifice whatever to preserve peace. 



Ho sponsored the bill for preparedness which had the energetic ap- 
proval of Colonel Roosevelt, with whom he was so intimately asso- 
ciated during the pendency of war measures that it came to be wide- 
lv rumored throughout the country, as evidenced by the public press 
of that day, that Colonel Roosevelt regarded him as the logical Re- 
publican candidate for the presidency in 1920. This close relation- 
ship between these two sturdy Americans gave each a deep confi- 
dence in the sincerity and singleness of purpose of the other in 
arousing an unsuspicious people to a realizing sense of impending 
danger in those crucial hours ; and this intimacy and mutual confi- 
dence continued until the lamented death of the most flaming and 
strenuous American of his day. The later utterances of Senator 
Harding with reference to the Peace Treaty and the League of Na- 
tions, and questions of importance in relation thereto, proved him 
to be a man of poise, not to be swayed by clamor or passionate ap- 
peal, but capable of exercising deliberate and wise judgment even 
amidst the turmoil of the most bitter opposition. 

Soon after entering the Senate of the United States, Mr. Harding 
was selected as the chairman of the Republican National Committee, 
and the absence of factional strife in reaching that result gave grati- 
fying evidence of his high standing in the party throughout the na- 
tion. In his masterly presentation of the name of President Taft 
for renomination in 1912 in Chicago, to the most turbulent conven- 
tion in the annals of Republicanism, overcoming massed opposition 
and irritating interruption with good humor and the persuasive 
power of his eloquence, and, in his keynote address at the last na- 
tional convention, he acquired a nationwide reputation as an orator 
and as a safe and sane thinker. In presiding over the deliberations 
of his committee, he proved himself a man of poise, and a masterly 

During the last score of years, Senator Harding made three visits 
abroad, visiting most of the European countries, his principal pur- 
pose being to study at close range the economic problems with which 
they had to deal — the tariff, the standard of wages paid workmen in 
the various countries, and the varied conditions of their mode of 
life. After his election to the Senate, and before taking his seat, he 
visited the Hawaiian Islands in quest of information upon the pro- 
duction and distribution of sugar. He has spoken many times and 
m almost every State of the Union, addressing now a wool-growers' 



association, now a farmers' institute, now a convention of steel and 
iron masters, and now an association of miners, of railroad em- 
ployees, or workmen from some other branch of industry, thus fa- 
miliarizing himself with the needs of all classes and of every section, 
and with the thoughts and hopes and inspirations of all sorts and 
conditions of men. Having himself climbed the ladder from the 
lowest rung, he habitually gave an attentive ear and careful thought 
to the claims and problems of men in every station of life. 

Regarding the last campaign, that of 1920, it is to be said that the 
progress of the Republican National Convention, from beginning to 
end, epitomized the political growth of Senator Harding. Entering 
upon the contest with no advantage of organization, even with a 
slight defection in certain quarters in his home State (not to be re- 
garded seriously save as a handicap in a convention), his assets in 
the nominating body were many friends, with no enemies. 

As the nominee of his party for the presidency, Mr. Harding 
made many addresses during the campaign, principally at his home, 
and from its portico extending his greetings to hosts of visiting 
bodies, and giving brief but sturdy expression to his political senti- 
ments. His election in November was by the most tremendous pop- 
ular vote ever accorded a presidential candidate in the history of 
the country, with a corresponding preponderance in the electoral 
college. He is the first professional newspaper man to occupy the 
presidency of the nation. He has been frequently compared with 
President McKinley in certain personal qualities — approachability, 
his capacity for meeting with serenity men holding to views differ- 
ent from his own, and a disposition to conciliate rather than to an- 

Following the election in which he achieved so wonderful a vic- 
tory, Mr. Harding invited and received at his home very many rep- 
resentative men of all political views and business interests, in or- 
der to acquaint himself as thoroughly as possible with all shades of 
opinion. His inauguration as President was marked with the ut- 
most simplicity, but without the least sacrifice of dignity. A great 
parade and imposing public demonstration had been prepared for 
by Congress and the people of the National Capital, but against this 
Mr. Harding protested, principally because of the great expense it 
would impose upon the national treasury and upon the many visi- 
tors from all parts of the country. His decision was applauded all 



but universally, for sake of its example as tending to economy at a 
time when all interests and all people are burdened with taxation to 
an extent never before deemed possible. 

Mr. Harding married, in 1891, Florence Kling, daughter of the 
late Amos Kling, a leading business man of Marion, Ohio. She in- 
herited the business acumen of her father, and has proven a tower 
of strength to her husband in all his business relations and political 
aspirations. The family are members of Trinity Baptist Church, 
in their home city, Marion, Ohio. 

James Middleton Cox, Member of Congress, and three times Gov- 
ernor of his State, was born March 31, 1870, in Jacksonburg, Ohio, 
son of Gilbert and Eliza A. Cox. His father was a man of stern 
character, but to whom he was deeply attached ; the tie between the 
lad and his mother was exceptional, and he has said that the great- 
est pleasure he ever obtained from being governor was to have her 
witness his inauguration into that office. The lad's youth was passed 
after the fashion of a farmer's son of that day. From an early age 
he bore a busy part in farm work, and attended the primitive coun- 
try school. He received his religious training in the neighborhood 
church of the United Brethren, of which he became a member at the 
age of fifteen, (his father then the superintendent of the Sunday 
school, and in which he himself became a teacher), and to which he 
adhered until the family removed to Middletown, where was no 
church of his denomination, and he became connected with the 
Methodists, though he never transferred his membership from his 
first church home. His activity of mind in his youthful days is dis- 
cernible in his habits. Many evenings he sat in a village store 
listening to his elders discuss the political questions of the day; he 
was an industrious newspaper reader, and a noticeable patron of 
the church library, and took a leading part in amateur dramatic 
entertainments. For about a year he attended an academy, and 
this was the extent of his scholastic training. He had at intervals 
acted as church janitor, as a newsboy, and as "printer's devil." He 
new became the teacher in the familiar old schoolhouse, passing 
thence to serve similarly in two others, and was for three terms in 
such employment. In that day, a teacher was expected to rule with 
the rod. Disagreeing with this custom, in its stead he appealed to 
the hearts and reason of his scholars, and only recently, in review- 



ing his life, he has said that he owes much to his experience as .- 
teacher, and to that he ascribes much of his success in leading men 
rather than driving them. 

At the age of twenty-one, Mr. Cox purchased the Middlctowri 
"News-Signal," upon which he had worked at odd times, and here 
he' performed all the work of an old-time printer — as compositor, 
make-up man and pressman. His mental equipment was ample, 
despite his lack of school advantages; he had acquired familiaritv 
with the classics, and was well versed in history and biography. II j, 
editorial columns were marked by plain, understandable and un- 
stilted language. On one occasion a railroad wreck occurred in his 
vicinity, involving the loss of several lives. The account of this 
Mr. Cox sent to the Cincinnati "Enquirer," and it was so favorably 
received that he was offered a situation on that paper. This he ac- 
cepted, and continued in its employ for two years, when he resigned. 
During this period he had cherished a desire for a greater field, and 
this he found in the capacity of private secretary to Congressman 
Sorg, whom he served efficiently during two sessions, at the same 
time performing much work as a newspaper correspondent. I i * - 
now, at the suggestion and with the assistance of Mr. Sorg, pur- 
chased a controlling interest in the Dayton "News," which was then 
operating at a loss, and this he placed upon a paying basis. Later 
he bought the Springfield "Press-Republic," changing its name to 
"The News." Both these properties he placed on firm paying 
foundations; each is housed in a beautiful stone building; they en- 
joy remarkable circulations; and stand as monuments to the fore- 
sight, enterprise and industry of their owner. 

The public career of Mr. Cox began in 1908, when he was elected 
to Congress, and he was returned for a second term by an increased 
plurality. During his first term he served on the District of Colin;: 
bia Committee, and in the second term on the Appropriations Com- 
mittee. He attracted attention by his opposition to the famous 
Payne-Aldrich bill, and for his efforts for the establishment of a 
national Children's Bureau. He was one of the first to urge upon 
Congress appropriations for aeroplane construction, and the in- 
vestigation of the National Soldiers' Homes. 

In 1912 Mr. Cox was elected governor. He had some advantage 
in the breach in the ranks of the Republican party, yet his succe-- 
lay in largest degree in his stout advocacy of certain reform meas- 



ures, nnd a considerable personal popularity as the result of his 
congressional service. His purposes involved a series of amend- 
ments to the State constitution, and considerable constructive leg- 
islation, some fifty distinct measures, covering a wide range of sub- 
jects — reorganization of the school and taxation systems, a work- 
men's compensation law, provisions for a budget system, etc., etc. 
It was a task requiring constant vigilance and astute diplomacy, but 
he redeemed the promises of his campaign. This was at great cost, 
however, for his many innovations had awakened bitter opposition 
among influential interests, particularly those engaged in the liquor 
traffic, and he was defeated at the polls in his candidacy for re-elec- 
tion. In 1916 he was again the Democratic candidate for the same 
ofiice, and was elected, but by a reduced plurality of less than 7,000, 
while Wilson carried the State by almost 90,000. In this contest, 
Mr. Cox confronted the same difficulties as in the year which brought 
him defeat. . In 1918 he was elected for a third gubernatorial term, 
making a wonderful record for a Democrat in a State normally 
largely Eepublican. In all these six years of his administration, 
nmid all the disturbances growing out of labor questions, and which 
were attended by scenes of violence in various States, he did not 
once call out the militia to police a strike. 

Governor Cox's gubernatorial record, particularly in his last 
term, made him a figure of national importance, and eventually 
brought him the nomination for the presidency as the Democratic 
candidate. He had taken strong ground for the enforcement of 
whatever law was on the statute books, regardless of his views as to 
the expediency of such a law, and it was his enforcement of that es- 
tablishing prohibition in the State that worked his defeat in his sec- 
ond candidacy. To the woman suffrage question he was most favor- 
able, and his encouragement to the leaders in that cause extended 
beyond the confines of his own State, while in his own he labored for 
the passage and signed every bill presented to him which was help- 
ful to the cause. He had a first hand in the great mass of State leg- 
islation covering business service, the protection of workmen along 
the many lines wherein oppression may be wrought by unrighteous 
employers, social service for the safeguarding of health and the 
care of children and the afflicted; improvement in the educational 
system ; fostering agricultural and kindred interests ; and road im- 
provement ; with many others not to be enumerated — in all making 



a chapter of improvement probably not to be equalled in a like 
period of time in the history of the country. 

As governor during the World War, Mr. Cox endeared himself 
particularly to the host of young men of his State who offered them- 
selves for the great struggle. He was extremely conservative dur- 
ing the days which preceded the outbreak, but when the real crisis 
came, he gave himself over devotedly to the great cause in which his 
country was enlisted. He furthered every governmental movement 
looking to the enrollment of troops; and was particularly indus- 
trious in caring for the soldiers of his own State, formulating and 
favoring all the legislation in their behalf, and making numerous 
visits throughout the State and to Washington City in their interest. 

Governor Cox was first suggested as a presidential possibility at 
a conference of Governors and Mayors, called by the President, and 
who assembled at the White House, March 3-5, 1919, to consider con- 
ditions throughout the country with relation to commerce, industral- 
ism and municipal and general governmental relations. In the nom- 
inating convention, after "favorite sons" had been complimented, 
the contest settled down between William G. McAdoo, former Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, Attorney-General Palmer, and Governor Cox. 
The battle was royal to the forty-third ballot; the forty-fourth was 
never taken, the chorus of affirmation for Governor Cox proclaim- 
ing the unanimous vote of the convention. In the ensuing heated 
contest, Mr. Cox displayed remarkable powers of endurance, travel- 
ing into all parts of the country, and speaking to hundreds of large 
assemblages, and frequently several times the same day, with all 
the fervor of an accomplished orator. 

Governor Cox was twice married. His first wife, to whom he was 
united in Cincinnati, May 25, 1893, was a member of the Harding 
family of that city, Mary by name, and to them three children were 
born: Helen, now Mrs. Daniel Mahoney, whose husband is a mem- 
ber of the Dayton News Company ; John, now a student in a military 
academy in Indiana; and James. He married (second) in Septem- 
ber, 1917, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Blair, a prominent man 
of business in Chicago; the ceremony was performed by Rev. Wash- 
ington Gladden, a well known divine of Washington City. Of this 
marriage was born one child, Anne. 

Note — The foregoing is from "American Biography : A New Cyclopedia," Vol. 
IX, now in press ; The American Historical Society, Inc. 




Following after historical narratives of unique institutions of 
learning in previous issues of this magazine, mention is now to be 
made of two others — one of most unusual history, the other of 
unusual purposes and accomplishments. 

Taking the latter first, Valparaiso University, at Valparaiso, 
Indiana, is to be accorded a place of its own. Its primal academical 
foundation suffered wreck, and its restoration was as a school for 
the preparation of teachers, from which it developed into the great 
University of today. The story is interestingly told on the initial 
pages of the present issue of our magazine, leaving nothing to be 
here said beyond a word of appreciation for those out of whose 
effort have grown such great results — results recognizable in the 
thousands of alumni dispersed throughout the entire country and in 
foreign lands, and adorning every professional and other honorable 
and useful calling. A curious coincidence attaches to this narrative 
in the fact that the editor, when he arranged for it, was not aware 
that the managing director of the Society publishing " Americana" 
was a graduate of the institution referred to. 

It is not usual for a reviewer to pass upon such a work as "The 
General Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates of Williams Col- 
lege." This volume, however, is deserving of notice, not only for 
the large number of noble names contained therein, but for the fac 
simile of the 'will of the founder of the institution which bears his 
name, Colonel Ephraim Williams, whom, by the way, Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes admiringly refers to in one of his delightful volumes. 

Williams College, seated at Williamstown, Massachusetts, is to 
be numbered among the very best of its class, and the story of its 
establishment is of peculiar interest. Colonel Williams was born 
in Newton, Masachusetts, February 24, 1715, son of a colonel of the 
same name, but of whom we learn nothing more. In youth he fol- 
lowed the sea, afterward joining the army and serving against the 



French in Canada in the war of 1740-48. He attained the rank of 
captain, and in recognition of his service the government of Massa- 
chusetts made him a grant of two hundred acres of land in the pres- 
ent townships of Adams and Williamstown, Berkshire county. 
Within this territory he erected Fort Massachusetts, and was made 
commander of the entire line of frontier posts west of the Connecti- 
cut river. On the renewal of the war between England and France, 
in 1755, he commanded a Massachusetts regiment sent to join Sir 
William Johnson in the expedition against Crown Point. With a 
thousand white troops and two hundred Mohawk braves, he advanc- 
ed to Bloody Pond, near the head of Lake George, where he fell 
into an ambuscade and was killed at the first fire, shot through the 
head. He was unmarried, and it would appear that a premonition 
of death moved him to make his will, at Albany, New York, when he 
was setting out on the campaign in which his life was lost. In that 
will he devised all his property for the establishment of a free 
school in the neighborhood of his home, and where grew up the 
town which was named for him. Upon his bequest was founded the 
Free School in Williamstown, incorporated in 1785, with power to 
conduct a lottery for the erection of a school house. The lottery 
realized $3,500, to which the people added contributions amounting 
to $2,000; these were large sums for that day. In 1790 a four-story 
building was erected (afterwards known as West College), and the 
following year the school was opened, with Rev. Ebenezer Fitch as 
principal. In 1793 the institution was incorporated as a college, 
with Mr. Fitch as its first president. The first commencement was 
in 1795, when four students were graduated. The catalogue pub- 
lished that year is said to be the earliest production of the kind in 
this country. In following years additional buildings were erected. 
Near the College edifice proper is Mills Park, on the site of and 
commemorating the students ' prayer meeting out of which grew the 
first organization in America for foreign missionary work. The 
leader in that movement was Samuel J. Mills, whose name is the 
first appended to the constitution of the society. He devoted his 
life to missionary work, and was the inspiring spirit in the forma- 
tion of the American Bible Society. 

The memory of Colonel Ephraim Williams, founder of Williams 
College, is further preserved by a memorial boulder planted by 
college alumni in 1854, on the spot upon which he fell in battle. 




It is a pleasant experience for a reviewer to find upon his table at 
the same time, two such volumes as those treated immediately be- 
low — ' ' The Joy Maker, ' ' and ' ' Religion and Health. ' ' Each may be 
esteemed as in a way supplemental to the other, and they might well 
companion together on the same table. 

The Joy Maker: A Guide to Happiness; by A. Eugene Bartlett, 
D. D. ; Fleming H. Revell Co., Xew York, London. 

In such a time as the present, with its unexampled burden of 
books worthless or positively vicious, it is a delight to occasionally 
find something of such genuine worth as "The Joy Maker." It 
warms the cockles of the heart. In literary construction it so rise3 
above the ordinary book plane that we seem to lose sight of the 
printed page, and rather hear the words spoken into the ear with a 
quiet but persuasive eloquence. In sentiment it touches the best 
that lies in the human heart — the true humanities, as distinguished 
from the sordid and the selfish. Not a chapter but is of deep mean- 
ing — encouragement to the discouraged; consolation to the sorrow- 
ing; courage to the faltering; joy alike to him who is joyous, and to 
him to whom laughter is a stranger. It is a book which might well 
be bought in multiples — for one's own reading and rereading, for 
the friend who exemplifies the qualities here held up as worthy of 
emulation, and for that other friend who is needful of an uplift out 
of despondency and gloom. 

Religion and Health; by James J. Walsh, M. D., Ph.D., Sc.D., 
etc.; Medical Director of Fordham University School of Sociology; 
Professor of Physiological Psychology, Cathedral College Lecturer 
on Psychology and Sociology; Little, Brown & Co., Boston; $2.25 

The author of this volume is widely recognized as a prime leader 
as a writer of works not only of great instructional value, but of 
commanding interest as literature, nor is his fame confined to our 
own country. His "Makers of Modern Medicine" went into its 
third edition, breaking the record in that line. This was followed 
by "The Popes and Science," which Professor Pagel, of the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, pronounced "the most serious contribution to the 
history of medicine that has ever come out of America"; and by 
"Old Time Makers of Medicine," which was commended by "The 



London Lancet" as "a fascinating volume." In addition, the auth- 
or's "The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries," and "The Century 
of Columbus," portraying the literature, science and art of those 
stupendous days, appealed to a larger reading element, and the 
first went into edition after edition to upwards of fifty thousand 
copies. Others of his volumes and contributions to periodical pub- 
lications are numbered by the score. 

In the subjects of neurology and psychiatry, Dr. Walsh has long 
been recognized as an authority than whom is none higher. In 
1907 he came into his present chair of Physiological Psychology in 
the Cathedral College, New York City, in which he introduced and 
still continues a special course of his own formulation, to enable the 
medical students to understand the use of mental influences in med- 
ical treatment, and to apply them as far as practicable. It is along 
these lines that "Religion and Health" follows, but in a broader 
way, to bring its precepts within the comprehension of the ordinary 
man and woman, to the end that they may apply them to their own 
governance and in the rearing of their children. To this summing 
up does the author bring his reader in due course. Indulging in 
no fantastic recital of the marvels of mental influence, he tells 
simply, and at times humorously, how quacks and charlatans have 
unconsciously acted upon human minds; how much of that impor- 
tant chapter in the history of medicine, "The cures that have 
failed," is really the story of psychotherapy down through the ages ; 
and how suggestion has its practical application in various forms 
of ailment — not only the functional nervous affections, but even or- 
ganic disease — in modifying symptoms, relieving conditions, and 
encouraging the patient. "Suggestion," as he defines it, opens into 
a field of entrancing interest, fruitful with personal uplift and real 
benevolence, making it possible for one to be a healer of no mean 
parts to himself and to those about him. Of course the author is 
too much of a scientist to carry this to the extinguishment of the 
physician and surgeon. It is only to be added, that the word "Re- 
ligion," as used by the author both as title and in part theme, is not 
used in any restricted meaning, to the propagation of any dogma. 
It is a lucid delineation of man in his physical and spiritual rela- 
tions, and their interdependence. There could not be better purpose 
for writing a book than has possessed the author, whose thoughtful 
readers will find in his pages not only intellectual entertainment, 
but a potent antidote against a host of the unmoral pestilences of the 



University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences; published by 
the University of Elinois ; Urbana, Illinois. 

The above-named quarterly publication is one of real value, deal- 
ing with topics of importance, and which are treated critically and 
dispassionately. The range of subjects is of the broadest, including 
history, science and literature. Under the former head and in 
different issues are such papers as "The West in the Diplomatic 
Negotiations of the American Revolution," and "Church and State 
in Massachusetts"; in literature, such as "The Influence of Chris- 
tianity on the Vocabulary of Old English Poetry"; in domestic sci- 
ence such as "Labor Problems"; with a strong array of mono- 
graphs on American morphology and biology. The subscription 
price is three dollars per annum, and there are special rates for 
individual monographs. 

History of Col. Henry Boquet, and the Western Frontiers of 
Pennsylvania, 1747-176-1; Collected and edited by Mary Carson 
Darlington; privately printed. 

This volume was prepared for publication by Mary O'Hara Dar- 
lington, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who explains in a prefatory 
note that the author died June 18, 1915, leaving her work completed, 
with its dedication to the Daughters of the American Revolution of 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, but that the printing was unavoid- 
ably delayed until the present time. The author had previously 
published "Fort Pitt and Letters from the Frontier," and the vol- 
ume now issued is of much supplemental value. Her inspiration 
for her task she ascribes in large degree to "the increase of inter- 
est in the frontier history of Pennsylvania, caused by the establish- 
ment of the Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution." 
Her quoted matter and reproductions of papers of historic impor- 
tance are of undoubted authenticity, and include Trent's Journal 
and General Boquet 's papers, taken from the Library of the British 
Museum by Mr. William M. Darlington personally. Other author- 
ities cited are John Entick's "Late War," published in 1766; Gor- 
don's "History of Pennsylvania," and standard French biogra- 
phies. The volume is well printed, attractively bound, and contains 
an excellent portrait of General Henry Boquet, and maps of Logs- 
town, Fort Duquesne, the Boquet battlefield, the rebuilt Fort Pitt 
Redoubt, Fort Bedford, and camp at Fort Ligonier, all reproduc- 
tions in the best style of the engraver's art. 



The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography; quarterly; 
The Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. 

This publication occupies an important field, presenting the gene- 
alogies of a host of the very earliest families in America, and which 
are now represented in every State of the Union; while the histor- 
ical pages abound in ancient papers covering every period of the 
Colony and State. In a recent number is an admirable tribute to 
the late William Gordon McCabe, one of Virginia's most illustrious 
educators and litterateurs. As a youth he carried away the high- 
est graduation honors from Hampton Academy. He began his 
active career as a private tutor in a family at Westover, and his 
literary work with the "Southern Literary Messenger." Later he 
entered the University of Virginia, but soon leaving it, at the out- 
break of the Civil War, to enter the Confederate army, in which he 
served with distinction, rising from the ranks to an artillery cap 
taincy. After the return of peace, he opened McCabe 's University 
School at Petersburg, which he continued until 1895, when he re- 
moved it to Richmond, and closed his educational work there in 
1905, with a fame as a teacher second to that of none in America, 
to devote himself mainly to literature. The productions of his pen 
are altogether too many to enumerate ; it may only be said that 
they covered both history and literature, poetry as well as prose, 
and he was an incomparable Latinist. His library was the finest 
and most unique private library in Virginia, and contained a multi- 
tude of autographed presentation copies from the most eminent 
authors of the day, foreign as well as domestic — historians, poets, 
essayists, fictionists, military critics, and the like. Among the many 
publications to which he contributed was the "History of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia," Lewis Publishing Company, New York, now 
the Lewis Historical Publishing Company. 

To ihe end of his days, Dr. McCabe held to the political convic- 
tions which led him into the Confederate army. To quote his biog- 
rapher in "The Virginia Magazine," "with all his unforgetting 
loyalty to old memories, he was none the less loyal to the later 
duties and obligations of the highest citizenship under a reconciled 
and restored Union. No one took a larger or more eager interest 
in the success of the Allies and America in the World War, in 
which his youngest son, a colonel in the United States army, served 


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Afterward James II., King of England 


with distinguished gallantry; but he regarded with scant respect 
the idea that it was a war 'to make the world safe for democracy,' 
holding rather that it was fought in" defense and vindication of the 
honor and the interest of the American Republic."